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Pulmonary Embolism
Pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolism
(PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).[6] Symptoms of a PE may include shortness of breath, chest pain particularly upon breathing in, and coughing up blood.[1] Symptoms of a blood clot in the leg may also be present such as a red, warm, swollen, and painful leg.[1] Signs of a PE include low blood oxygen levels, rapid breathing, rapid heart rate, and sometimes a mild fever.[10] Severe cases can lead to passing out, abnormally low blood pressure, and sudden death.[2] PE usually results from a blood clot in the l
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Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[2][8] These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body.[8] Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements.[1] While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes.[1] Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.[8] Tobacco
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Radiocontrast
Radiocontrast
Radiocontrast
agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy. Radiocontrast
Radiocontrast
agents are typically iodine, barium-sulphate or gadolinium based compounds. They absorb external X-rays, resulting in decreased exposure on the X-ray
X-ray
detector. This is different from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine which emit radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) functions through different principles and thus utilizes different contrast agents
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Diagnostic Method
Medical diagnosis
Medical diagnosis
(abbreviated Dx[1] or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. It is most often referred to as diagnosis with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more diagnostic procedures, such as diagnostic tests, are also done during the process. Sometimes posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific. For example, redness of the skin (erythema), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus does not tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis, in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed
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Air Embolism
An air embolism, also known as a gas embolism, is a blood vessel blockage caused by one or more bubbles of air or other gas in the circulatory system. Air
Air
embolisms may also occur in the xylem of vascular plants, especially when suffering from water stress. Air
Air
can be introduced into the circulation during surgical procedures, lung over-expansion injury, decompression, and a few other causes. Divers can suffer from arterial gas embolisms as a consequence of lung over-expansion injury. Breathing gas
Breathing gas
introduced into the venous system of the lungs due to pulmonary barotrauma will not be trapped in the alveolar capillaries, and will consequently be circulated to the rest of the body through the systemic arteries, with a high risk of embolism
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Hormone Replacement Therapy
Hormone
Hormone
replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones. Common forms of HRT include: Menopausal hormone therapy
Menopausal hormone therapy
is based on the idea that the treatment may prevent discomfort caused by diminished circulating estrogen and progesterone hormones, or in the case of the surgically or prematurely menopausal, that it may prolong life and may reduce incidence of dementia.[1] It involves the use of one or more of a group of medications designed to artificially boost hormone levels. The main types of hormones involved are estrogen, progesterone, or progestins, and sometimes, testosterone
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Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.[1][2] It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. The father of genetics is Gregor Mendel, a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian
Augustinian
friar. Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms (pea plants) inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene. Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes are still primary principles of genetics in the 21st century, but modern genetics has expanded beyond inheritance to studying the function and behavior of genes
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Smoking
Smoking
Smoking
is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Most commonly the substance is the dried leaves of the tobacco plant which have been rolled into a small square of rice paper to create a small, round cylinder called a "cigarette". Smoking
Smoking
is primarily practiced as a route of administration for recreational drug use because the combustion of the dried plant leaves vaporizes and delivers active substances into the lungs where they are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and reach bodily tissue
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Bed Rest
Bed rest, also referred to as the rest-cure, is a medical treatment in which a person lies in bed for most of the time to try to cure an illness.[1] Bed rest
Bed rest
refers to voluntarily lying in bed as a treatment and not being confined to bed because of a health impairment which physically prevents leaving bed
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Oxygen Saturation
Oxygen
Oxygen
saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium. It can be measured with a dissolved oxygen probe such as an oxygen sensor or an optode in liquid media, usually water. The standard unit of oxygen saturation is percent (%). Oxygen
Oxygen
saturation can be measured regionally and noninvasively. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) is commonly measured using pulse oximetry. Tissue saturation at peripheral scale can be measured using NIRS. This technique can be applied on both muscle and brain.Contents1 In medicine 2 In environmental science 3 See also 4 References In medicine[edit] Main article: Oxygen
Oxygen
saturation (medicine) In medicine, oxygen saturation refers to oxygenation, or when oxygen molecules (O 2) enter the tissues of the body
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Risk Factor
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection. When evidence is found the term determinant is used as a variable associated with either increased or decreased risk.Contents1 Correlation
Correlation
vs causation 2 Terms of description 3 Example 4 General determinants 5 Risk
Risk
marker 6 History 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading Correlation
Correlation
vs causation[edit] Risk
Risk
factors or determinants are correlational and not necessarily causal, because correlation does not prove causation. For example, being young cannot be said to cause measles, but young people have a higher rate of measles because they are less likely to have developed immunity during a previous epidemic
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Tachycardia
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.[1] In general, a resting heart rate over 100 beats per minute is accepted as tachycardia in adults.[1] Heart rates above the resting rate may be normal (such as with exercise) or abnormal (such as with electrical problems within the heart).Contents1 Definition 2 Causes 3 Differential diagnosis3.1 Sinus 3.2 Ventricular 3.3 Supraventricular3.3.1 Atrial fibrillation 3.3.2 AV nodal reentrant tachycardia 3.3.3 AV reentrant tachycardia 3.3.4 Junctional tachycardia4 Management4.1 Unstable5 Terminology 6 References 7 External linksDefinition[edit] The upper threshold of a normal human resting heart rate is based on age
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Ultrasound
Ultrasound
Ultrasound
is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing. Ultrasound
Ultrasound
is no different from 'normal' (audible) sound in its physical properties, except in that humans cannot hear it. This limit varies from person to person and is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults. Ultrasound
Ultrasound
devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz. Ultrasound
Ultrasound
is used in many different fields. Ultrasonic devices are used to detect objects and measure distances. Ultrasound imaging
Ultrasound imaging
or sonography is often used in medicine. In the nondestructive testing of products and structures, ultrasound is used to detect invisible flaws. Industrially, ultrasound is used for cleaning, mixing, and to accelerate chemical processes
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Complication (medicine)
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy. The disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems. A new disease may also appear as a complication to a previous existing disease. A medical treatment, such as drugs or surgery may produce adverse effects or produce new health problem(s) by itself. Therefore, a complication may be iatrogenic (i.e. literally brought forth by the physician). Medical knowledge about a disease, procedure or treatment usually entails a list of the most common complications, so that they can be foreseen, prevented or recognized more easily and speedily. Depending on the degree of vulnerability, susceptibility, age, health status, immune system condition, etc. complications may arise more easily
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Pulmonology
Pulmonology
Pulmonology
is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.[1] The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
word pulmō, pulmōnis ("lung") and the Greek suffix -λογία, -logia ("study of"). Pulmonology
Pulmonology
is synonymous with pneumology (from Greek πνεύμων ("lung") and -λογία), respirology and respiratory medicine. Pulmonology
Pulmonology
is known as chest medicine and respiratory medicine in some countries and areas. Pulmonology
Pulmonology
is considered a branch of internal medicine, and is related to intensive care medicine. Pulmonology
Pulmonology
often involves managing patients who need life support and mechanical ventilation
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Cardiology
Cardiology
Cardiology
(from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Physicians
Physicians
who specialize in this field of medicine are called cardiologists, a specialty of internal medicine
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