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Puerperal Fever
Postpartum
Postpartum
infections, also known as childbed fever and puerperal fever, are any bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.[1] Signs and symptoms usually include a fever greater than 38.0 °C (100.4 °F), chills, lower abdominal pain, and possibly bad-smelling vaginal discharge.[1] It usually occurs after the first 24 hours and within the first ten days following delivery.[5] The most common infection is that of the uterus and surrounding tissues known as puerperal sepsis or postpartum metritis.[1] R
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Streptococcus Pyogenes
Streptococcus
Streptococcus
pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria. These bacteria are aerotolerant and an extracellular bacterium, made up of non-motile and non-sporing cocci. As expected with a streptococci, it is clinically important in human illness. It is an infrequent, but usually pathogenic, part of the skin microbiota. It is the predominant species harboring the Lancefield group A antigen, and is often called group A streptococcus (GAS). However, both Streptococcus
Streptococcus
dysgalactiae and the Streptococcus
Streptococcus
anginosus group can possess group A antigen. Group A streptococci
Group A streptococci
when grown on blood agar typically produces small zones of beta-hemolysis, a complete destruction of red blood cells
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Septicaemia
Sepsis
Sepsis
is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.[8] Common signs and symptoms include fever, increased heart rate, increased breathing rate, and confusion.[1] There also may be symptoms related to a specific infection, such as a cough with pneumonia, or painful urination with a kidney infection.[2] In the very young, old, and people with a weakened immune system, there may be no symptoms of a specific infection and the body temperature may be low or normal, rather than high.[2] Severe sepsis is sepsis causing poor orga
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Intravenous
Intravenous therapy
Intravenous therapy
(IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous). The intravenous route of administration can be used for injections (with a syringe at higher pressures) or infusions (typically using only the pressure supplied by gravity). Intravenous infusions are commonly referred to as drips
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Gentamicin
Gentamicin, sold under brand names Garamycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections.[1] This may include bone infections, endocarditis, pelvic inflammatory disease, meningitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis among others.[1] It is not effective for gonorrhea or chlamydia infections.[1] It can be given intravenously, by injection into a muscle, or topically.[1] Topical
Topical
formulations may be used in burns or for infections of the outside of the eye.[2] In the developed world it is often only used for two days until bacterial
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Clindamycin
Clindamycin
Clindamycin
is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.[1] This includes middle ear infections, bone or joint infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, strep throat, pneumonia, and endocarditis among others.[1] It can be useful against some cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
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Abscess
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.[1] Signs and symptoms of abscesses include redness, pain, warmth, and swelling.[1] The swelling may feel fluid-filled when pressed.[1] The area of redness often extends beyond the swelling.[6] Carbuncles and boils are types of abscess that often involve hair follicles, with carbuncles being larger.[7] They are usually caused by a bacterial infection.[8] Often many different types of bacteria are involved in a single infection.[6] In the United States and many other areas of the world the most common bacteria present is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.[1] Rarely, parasites can cause abscesses; this is more common in the developing world.[3] Diagnosis of a skin abscess is usually made based on what it looks like and is confirmed by cutting it open.[1]
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Vaginal Delivery
A vaginal delivery is the birth of offspring (babies in humans) in mammals through the vagina. It is the natural method of birth for all mammals except monotremes, which lay eggs into the external environment
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Hippocrates
Hippocrates
Hippocrates
of Kos
Kos
(Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos; c. 460 – c. 370 BC), also known as Hippocrates
Hippocrates
II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles
Pericles
(Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine"[1][2] in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine
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Handwashing
Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms. If water and soap is not available, hands can be cleaned with ash instead.[1] A substitute for tap water is pouring water from a hanging jerrycan or gourd. Medical hand hygiene refers to hygiene practices related to medical procedures. Hand washing before administering medicine or medical care can prevent or minimize the spread of disease. The main medical purpose of washing hands is to cleanse the hands of pathogens (like bacteria or viruses) and chemicals which can cause harm or disease. This is especially important for people who handle food or work in the medical field, but also important practice for the general public. Handwashing with soap consistently at critical moments during the day prevents the spread of diseases like diarrhoea and cholera which are transmitted through fecal-oral routes
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Chlorine
Chlorine
Chlorine
is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine
Chlorine
is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity, behind only oxygen and fluorine. The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride (common salt), has been known since ancient times. Around 1630, chlorine gas was first synthesised in a chemical reaction, but not recognised as a fundamentally important substance. Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
wrote a description of chlorine gas in 1774, supposing it to be an oxide of a new element
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Female Genital Tract
The female reproductive system (or female genital system) is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring. In the human the female reproductive system is immature at birth and develops to maturity at puberty to be able to produce gametes, and to carry a fetus to full term. The internal sex organs are the uterus and Fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which develops into the fetus. The uterus also produces vaginal and uterine secretions which help the transit of sperm to the Fallopian tubes. The ovaries produce the ova (egg cells). The external sex organs are also known as the genitals and these are the organs of the vulva including the labia, clitoris and vaginal opening. The vagina is connected to the uterus at the cervix.[1] At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the Fallopian tube into the uterus
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Pathogenic
In biology, a pathogen (Greek: πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a germ in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.[1][2] Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, protozoa, prion, a fungus, or other micro-organism.[3][4] The scientific study of pathogens is called Pathology. There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen
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Antibiotic
Antibiotics
Antibiotics
(from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called antibacterials, are a type of antimicrobial[1] drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.[2][3] They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria
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Lacerations
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound)
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Bloodstream
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. The circulatory system includes the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph.[1] The passage of lymph for example takes much longer than that of blood.[2] Blood
Blood
is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues
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