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Publius Ostorius Scapula
PUBLIUS OSTORIUS SCAPULA (died 52) was a Roman statesman and general who governed Britain from 47 until his death, and was responsible for the defeat and capture of Caratacus
Caratacus
. CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Notes * 3 References * 3.1 Primary sources * 3.2 Secondary sources * 4 External links CAREER Publius Ostorius Scapula was probably the son of Quintus Ostorius Scapula , the first joint commander of the Praetorian Guard
Praetorian Guard
appointed by Augustus
Augustus
and later prefect of Egypt . Nothing is known of his early career. He was suffect consul , probably in 46. In the winter of 47 he was appointed the second governor of Roman Britain
Roman Britain
by the emperor Claudius
Claudius
, succeeding Aulus Plautius
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Client Kingdom
A CLIENT STATE is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs. Types of client states include: satellite state , associated state , puppet state , neo-colony , protectorate , vassal state , and tributary state
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Legio XIV Gemina
LEGIO QUARTA DECIMA GEMINA ("The Twinned Fourteenth Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army
Imperial Roman army
, levied by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 57 BC. The cognomen Gemina (Twinned) was added when the legion was combined with another understrength legion after the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
. The cognomen Martia Victrix (martial "> Shield design of the Quartodecimani, a comitatensis legion under the Magister Militum
Magister Militum
per Thracias, 5th century, according to Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
. 5TH CENTURYAt the beginning of the 5th century, XIV Gemina was still assigned at Carnuntum. It probably dissolved with the collapse of the Danube frontier in the 430s
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Legio II Augusta
LEGIO SECUNDA AUGUSTA ("Augustus' Second Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army that was founded during the late Roman republic
Roman republic
. Its emblems were the Capricornus , Pegasus
Pegasus
, Mars . One of the emblems used was the Capricornus CONTENTS * 1 In Republican service * 2 In Imperial service * 2.1 Invasion of Britannia
Britannia
* 2.2 2nd and 3rd centuries * 3 Attested members * 4 In popular culture * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links IN REPUBLICAN SERVICEThe Legio II, Sabina was a Roman military unit of the late Republican era, which may have been formed by Julius Caesar in the year of the consulate of 48 BC and coincide, in this case, with the Legio II. Enlisted to fight against Pompey, they took part in the subsequent Battle of Munda of 45 BC
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Legio IX Hispana
LEGIO IX HISPANA ("Spanish 9th Legion"), also Legio nona Hispana ("Spanish Ninth Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army that existed from the 1st century BC until at least AD 120. The legion fought in various provinces of the late Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and early Roman Empire . It was stationed in Britain following the Roman invasion in 43 AD . The legion disappears from surviving Roman records after c. AD 120 and there is no extant account of what happened to it. The unknown fate of the legion has been the subject of considerable research and speculation. One theory (per historian Theodor Mommsen
Theodor Mommsen
) was that the legion was wiped out in action in northern Britain soon after 108, the date of the latest datable inscription of the Ninth found in Britain, perhaps during a rising of northern tribes against Roman rule
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Cheshire Plain
The CHESHIRE PLAIN is a relatively flat expanse of lowland almost entirely within the county of Cheshire
Cheshire
in North West England
North West England
. It extends from the Mersey Valley in the north to the Shropshire Hills in the south, bounded by the hills of North Wales
North Wales
to the west and the foothills of the Pennines
Pennines
to the north-east. The Wirral Peninsula lies to the north-west whilst the plain merges with the South Lancashire
Lancashire
Plain in the embayment occupied by Manchester
Manchester
to the north. In detail, the plain comprises two areas with distinct characters, the one to the west of the Mid Cheshire
Cheshire
Ridge and the other, larger, part to its east
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Wales
WALES (/ˈweɪlz/ ( listen ); Welsh : Cymru ( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the island of Great Britain . It is bordered by England
England
to the east , the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales
Wales
has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate
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March, Cambridgeshire
MARCH is a Fenland market town and civil parish in the Isle of Ely area of Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
, England
England
. It was the county town of the Isle of Ely which was a separate administrative county from 1889 to 1965. It is now the administrative centre of Fenland District Council . The town grew by becoming an important railway centre. Like many Fenland towns, March was once an island surrounded by marshes . It occupied the second largest "island" in the Great Level . As the land drained, the town grew and prospered as a trading and religious centre. It was also a minor port before, in more recent times, a market town and an administrative and railway centre. March is situated on the banks of the old course of the navigable River Nene
River Nene
, and today mainly used by pleasure boats
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Cambridgeshire
CAMBRIDGESHIRE (/ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒʃər/ or /-ʃɪər/ ; abbreviated CAMBS.), is an East Anglian county in England
England
, bordering Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
to the north, Norfolk
Norfolk
to the north-east, Suffolk to the east, Essex
Essex
and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. The city of Cambridge
Cambridge
is the county town
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium Ravenna
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Prasutagus
PRASUTAGUS was king of a British Celtic tribe called the Iceni , who inhabited roughly what is now Norfolk
Norfolk
, in the 1st century AD. He is best known as the husband of Boudica . Prasutagus may have been one of the eleven kings who surrendered to Claudius
Claudius
following the Roman conquest in 43, or he may have been installed as king following the defeat of a rebellion of the Iceni in 47. As an ally of Rome his tribe were allowed to remain nominally independent, and to ensure this Prasutagus named the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
as co-heir to his kingdom, along with his two daughters. Tacitus
Tacitus
says he lived a long and prosperous life, but when he died, the Romans ignored his will and took over, depriving the nobles of their lands and plundering the kingdom
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Legio XX Valeria Victrix
LEGIO VIGESIMA VALERIA VICTRIX, in English TWENTIETH VICTORIOUS VALERIA LEGION was a legion of the Imperial Roman army
Imperial Roman army
. The origin of the Legion's name is unclear and there are various theories, but the legion may have gained its title Valeria Victrix from a victory it achieved during the Great Illyrian revolt
Great Illyrian revolt
under the command of the general Marcus Valerius Messalla Messallinus . The legion had a boar as its emblem . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Fiction * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe legion was probably founded shortly after 31 BC by the emperor Augustus
Augustus
. XX Valeria victrix was probably part of the large Roman force that fought in the Cantabrian Wars
Cantabrian Wars
in Hispania
Hispania
from 25 to 19 BC
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Colchester
COLCHESTER /ˈkoʊltʃɛstər/ ( listen ) is an historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester
Colchester
in the county of Essex
Essex
. At the time of the census in 2011, it had a population of 121,859 , marking a considerable rise from the previous census and with considerable development since 2001 and ongoing building plans; it has been named as one of Britain's fastest growing towns. As the oldest recorded Roman town in Britain , Colchester
Colchester
is claimed to be the oldest town in Britain . It was for a time the capital of Roman Britain , and is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network . Colchester
Colchester
is some 50 miles (80 km) northeast of London and is connected to the capital by the A12 road and its railway station which is on the Great Eastern Main Line
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Gloucestershire
GLOUCESTERSHIRE (/ˈɡlɒstərʃər/ ( listen ) or /ˈɡlɒstərʃɪər/ ( listen )) formally abbreviated as GLOUCS. in print but now often as GLOS.) is a county in South West England
England
. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills , part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn
River Severn
, and the entire Forest of Dean . The county town is the city of Gloucester
Gloucester
, and other principal towns include Cheltenham
Cheltenham
, Cirencester
Cirencester
, Stroud
Stroud
, and Tewkesbury
Tewkesbury

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Guerrilla Warfare
GUERRILLA WARFARE is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians , or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes , sabotage , raids , petty warfare , hit-and-run tactics , and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Strategy, tactics and organization * 3 History * 4 Counter-guerrilla warfare * 4.1 Scholarship * 4.1.1 Classic guidelines * 4.1.2 Variants * 5