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Publius Ostorius Scapula
Publius Ostorius Scapula (died 52) was a Roman statesman and general who governed Britain from 47 until his death, and was responsible for the defeat and capture of Caratacus.Contents1 Career 2 Notes 3 References3.1 Primary sources 3.2 Secondary sources4 External linksCareer[edit] Publius Ostorius Scapula was probably the son of Quintus Ostorius Scapula, the first joint commander of the Praetorian Guard
Praetorian Guard
appointed by Augustus
Augustus
and later prefect of Egypt.[1] Nothing is known of his early career. He was suffect consul, probably in 46. In the winter of 47 he was appointed the second governor of Roman Britain
Roman Britain
by the emperor Claudius, succeeding Aulus Plautius. The south and east of the island was securely occupied and alliances had been made with tribes outside the Roman-controlled area, but other tribes continued to resist
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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Client Kingdom
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.[1] Types of client states include: satellite state, associated state, puppet state, neo-colony, protectorate, vassal state, and tributary state.Contents1 Client states in history1.1 Persia, Greece, and Rome 1.2 Under the Mongols
Mongols
and the Yuan dynasty 1.3 Ottoman Empire2 19th and 20th centuries2.1 Russia and Serbia 2.2 France 2.3 British Empire 2.4 Nazi Germany 2.5 United States 2.6 Japan 2.7 Soviet Union3 21st century3.1 Australia 3.2 China4 See als
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The Fens
The Fens, also known as the Fenlands, are a coastal plain in eastern England. Despite being a natural marshy region, most of the fens were drained several centuries ago, resulting in a flat, dry, low-lying agricultural region supported by a system of drainage channels and man-made rivers (dykes and drains) and automated pumping stations. A fen is the local term for an individual area of marshland or former marshland and also designates the type of marsh typical of the area, which has neutral or alkaline water chemistry and relatively large quantities of dissolved minerals, but few other plant nutrients. Fenland
Fenland
primarily lies around the coast of the Wash; it reaches into four ceremonial counties: Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, Norfolk
Norfolk
and a small area of Suffolk, as well as the historic county of Huntingdonshire
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March, Cambridgeshire
March is a Fenland
Fenland
market town and civil parish in the Isle of Ely area of Cambridgeshire, England. It was the county town of the Isle of Ely which was a separate administrative county from 1889 to 1965. It is now the administrative centre of Fenland
Fenland
District Council. The town grew by becoming an important railway centre. Like many Fenland
Fenland
towns, March was once an island surrounded by marshes. It occupied the second largest "island" in the Great Level. As the land drained, the town grew and prospered as a trading and religious centre
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Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
(/ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒʃər/ or /-ʃɪər/; abbreviated Cambs.),[3] is an East Anglian county in England, bordering Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
to the north, Norfolk
Norfolk
to the north-east, Suffolk
Suffolk
to the east, Essex
Essex
and Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
to the south, and Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
and Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
to the west. The city of Cambridge
Cambridge
is the county town
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Corona Civica
The Civic Crown (Latin: corona civica) was a chaplet of common oak leaves woven to form a crown. During the Roman Republic and the subsequent Principate, it was regarded as the second highest military decoration to which a citizen could aspire (the Grass Crown being held in higher regard). It was reserved for Roman citizens who saved the lives of fellow citizens by slaying an enemy on a spot held by the enemy that same day. The citizen saved must admit it; no one else could be a witness.[1] After Sulla's constitutional reforms, any recipient of the Civic Crown was entitled entry into the Roman Senate.[citation needed] Furthermore, the recipient was required by law to wear his crown at every public gathering, and was applauded even by men much senior to himself
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Prasutagus
Prasutagus was king of a British Celtic tribe called the Iceni, who inhabited roughly what is now Norfolk, in the 1st century AD. He is best known as the husband of Boudica. Prasutagus may have been one of the eleven kings who surrendered to Claudius following the Roman conquest in 43,[1] or he may have been installed as king following the defeat of a rebellion of the Iceni in 47.[2] As an ally of Rome his tribe were allowed to remain nominally independent, and to ensure this Prasutagus named the Roman emperor as co-heir to his kingdom, along with his two daughters. Tacitus says he lived a long and prosperous life, but when he died, the Romans ignored his will and took over, depriving the nobles of their lands and plundering the kingdom
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Wales
Wales
Wales
(/ˈweɪlz/ ( listen); Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəmri] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the island of Great Britain.[8] It is bordered by England
England
to the east, the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon
Snowdon
(Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit
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Cheshire Plain
The Cheshire
Cheshire
Plain is a relatively flat expanse of lowland almost entirely within the county of Cheshire
Cheshire
in North West England
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Legio XIV Gemina
Legio quarta decima Gemina ("The Twinned Fourteenth Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army, levied by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 57 BC. The cognomen Gemina (Twinned) was added when the legion was combined with another understrength legion after the Battle of Actium. The cognomen Martia Victrix (martial and victorious) was added sequentially following their service in the Pannonian War c. AD 9 and the defeat of Boudicca
Boudicca
in AD 61. The emblem of the legion was the Capricorn,[1] as with many of the legions levied by Caesar,[1] their shield device displayed the thunderbolt of Jupiter with wings
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Hill Fort
A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are typically European and of the Bronze and Iron Ages. Some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, and external ditches
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Legio II Augusta
Legio secunda Augusta ("Augustus' Second Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army
Imperial Roman army
that was founded during the late Roman republic. Its emblems were the Capricornus,[1] Pegasus,[2] Mars.One of the emblems used was the CapricornusContents1 In Republican service 2 In Imperial service2.1 Invasion of Britannia 2.2 2nd and 3rd centuries3 Attested members 4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksIn Republican service[edit] The Legio II, Sabina was a Roman military unit of the late Republican era, which may have been
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Legio IX Hispana
Legio IX Hispana
Legio IX Hispana
("Spanish 9th Legion"),[1] also Legio nona Hispana ("Spanish Ninth Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army
Imperial Roman army
that existed from the 1st century BC until at least AD 120. The legion fought in various provinces of the late Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and early Roman Empire. It was stationed in Britain following the Roman invasion in 43 AD. The legion disappears from surviving Roman records after c. AD 120 and there is no extant account of what happened to it. The unknown fate of the legion has been the subject of considerable research and speculation. One theory (per historian Theodor Mommsen) was that the legion was wiped out in action in northern Britain soon after 108, the date of the latest datable inscription of the Ninth found in Britain, perhaps during a rising of northern tribes against Roman rule
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Legio XX Valeria Victrix
Legio vigesima Valeria Victrix, in English Twentieth Victorious Valeria Legion was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. The origin of the Legion's name is unclear and there are various theories, but the legion may have gained its title Valeria Victrix from a victory it achieved during the Great Illyrian revolt
Great Illyrian revolt
under the command of the general Marcus Valerius Messalla Messallinus. The legion had a boar as its emblem.Contents1 History 2 Fiction 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The legion was probably founded shortly after 31 BC by the emperor Augustus
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Colchester
Colchester
Colchester
/ˈkoʊltʃɛstər/ ( listen)[1] is an historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester
Colchester
in the county of Essex. At the time of the 2011 UK Census, it had a population of 121,859, marking a considerable rise from the previous census and with considerable development since 2001 and ongoing building plans; it has been named as one of Britain's fastest growing towns.[2] As the oldest recorded Roman town in Britain, Colchester
Colchester
is claimed to be the oldest town in Britain.[3] It was for a time the capital of Roman Britain, and is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.[4] Colchester
Colchester
is some 50 miles (80 km) northeast of London and is connected to the capital by the A12 road and its railway station which is on the Great Eastern Main Line
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