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Public Limited Company
A public limited company (legally abbreviated to plc) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
company law, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland. It is a limited liability company whose shares may be freely sold and traded to the public (although a plc may also be privately held, often by another plc), with a minimum share capital of £50,000 and usually with the letters PLC after its name.[1] Similar companies in the United States are called publicly traded companies. Public limited companies will also have a separate legal identity. A PLC can be either an unlisted or listed company on the stock exchanges. In the United Kingdom, a public limited company usually must include the words "public limited company" or the abbreviation "PLC" or "plc" at the end and as part of the legal company name
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Anguillan Company Law
Anguillan company law is primarily codified in three principal statutes:the International Business Companies Act (Cap I.20);[1] the Companies Act (Cap C.65); and the Limited Liability Companies Act (Cap L.65).The Companies Act is generally reserved for companies which engaged in business physically in Anguilla, and companies formed under it are generally referred to as either "CACs" (an acronym for Companies Act Companies) or "ABCs" (an acronym for Anguillan Business Company)
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British Virgin Islands Company Law
British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
company law is primarily codified in the BVI Business Companies Act, 2004, and to a lesser extent by the Insolvency Act, 2003 and the Securities and Investment Business Act, 2010. The British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
has approximately 30 registered companies per head of population, which is probably the highest ratio of any country in the world. Annual company registration fees provide a significant part of Government revenue in the British Virgin Islands, which accounts for the comparative lack of other taxation
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Cayman Islands Company Law
Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
company law is primarily codified in the Companies Law (2016 Revision) and the Limited Liability Companies Law, 2016,[1] and to a lesser extent in the Securities and Investment Business Law (2015 Revision). The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is a leading Offshore Financial Centre, and financial services forms a significant part of the economy of the Cayman Islands
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Holding Company
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock. A holding company usually does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies to form a corporate group. Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow the ownership and control of a number of different companies. In the United States, 80% of stock, in voting and value, must be owned before tax consolidation benefits such as tax-free dividends can be claimed.[1] That is, if Company A owns 80% or more of the stock of Company B, Company A will not pay taxes on dividends paid by Company B to its stockholders, as the payment of dividends from B to A is essentially transferring cash from one company to the other
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Corporate Law In The United States
United States corporate law
United States corporate law
regulates the governance, finance and power of corporations in US law. Every state and territory has its own basic corporate code, while federal law creates minimum standards for trade in company shares and governance rights, found mostly in the Securities Act of 1933
Securities Act of 1933
and the Securities and Exchange Act
Securities and Exchange Act
of 1934, as amended by laws like the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
and the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010. The US Constitution
US Constitution
was interpreted by the US Supreme Court to allow corporations to incorporate in the state of their choice, regardless of where their headquarters are
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Sole Proprietorship
A sole proprietorship, also known as the sole trader or simply a proprietorship, is a type of enterprise that is owned and run by one natural person and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business entity. The owner is in direct control of all elements and is legally accountable for the finances of such business and this may include debts, loans, loss, etc. The sole trader receives all profits (subject to taxation specific to the business) and has unlimited responsibility for all losses and debts. Every asset of the business is owned by the proprietor and all debts of the business are the proprietor's. It is a "sole" proprietorship in contrast with partnerships (which have at least two owners). A sole proprietor may use a trade name or business name other than his, her, or its legal name
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Charitable Incorporated Organisation
A charitable incorporated organisation (CIO) is a new form of legal entity designed for non-profit organisations in the United Kingdom. The main intended benefits of the new entity are that it has legal personality, the ability to conduct business in its own name, and limited liability so that its members and trustees will not have to contribute in the event of financial loss. These are already available to limited companies; charities can be formed as companies, but then they must be registered with both Companies House
Companies House
and the Charity Commission. In contrast, the CIO only needs to register with the Charity Commission. This is expected to reduce bureaucracy for the charity.[1] The CIO status became available to charities in England and Wales on 4 March 2013
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Societas Europaea
A societas Europaea (Latin pronunciation: [soˈki.e.taːs ew.roːˈpae.a] SE; Latin: European society or company; plural: societates Europaeae) is a public company registered in accordance with the corporate law of the European Union
European Union
(EU), introduced in 2004 with the Council Regulation on the Statute for a European Company.[2] Such a company may more easily transfer to or merge with companies in other member states. 2,943 registrations have been reported as of 6 February 2018, including the following nine components (18%) of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index of leading Euro Area
Euro Area
companies (excluding the SE designation): Airbus, Allianz, BASF, E.ON, Fresenius, LVMH
LVMH
Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton, SAP, Schneider Electric
Schneider Electric
and Unibail-Rodamco.[3][4] National law continues to supplement the basic rules in the Regulation on formation and mergers
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Societas Cooperativa Europaea
The European Cooperative
Cooperative
Society (SCE, for Latin
Latin
societas cooperativa Europaea) is, in company law, a European co-operative type of company, established in 2006 and related to the European Company. European Cooperative
Cooperative
Societies may be established, and may operate, throughout the European Economic Area
European Economic Area
(including the European Community). The legal form was created to remove the need for co-operatives to establish a subsidiary in each Member State in which they operate, and to allow them to move their registered office and head office freely from one Member State to another, keeping their legal identity and without having to register or wind up any legal persons
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Societas Privata Europaea
A European Private Company
Company
(Latin: societas privata Europaea, SPE) is a legal form for a limited liability company that is being proposed by the European Commission
European Commission
to be introduced across the European Union. It forms a company of limited liability, similar to the English limited company, the Austrian or the German GmbH, the Dutch BV, the Belgian BVBA
BVBA
or the French SARL
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Societas Unius Personae
A societas unius personae (SUP; single-person company) is a legal form for a single-member private limited liability company proposed by the European Commission. See also[edit]European corporate lawSocietas Europaea Societas cooperativa Europaea Societas privata EuropaeaExternal links[edit]2014 Memo by the Commissionv t e European corporate forms Societas Europaea
Societas Europaea
(SE)
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European Economic Interest Grouping
A European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG) is a type of legal entity of the European corporate law
European corporate law
created on 1985-07-25 under European Community (EC) Council Regulation 2137/85.[1] It is designed to make it easier for companies in different countries to do business together, or to form consortia to take part in EU programmes. Its activities must be ancillary to those of its members, and, as with a partnership, any profit or loss it makes is attributed to its members. Thus, although it is liable for VAT
VAT
and employees’ social insurance, it is not liable to corporation tax. It has unlimited liability. It was based on the pre-existing French groupement d´intérêt économique (G.i.e.). Several thousand EEIGs now exist, active in fields as varied as agricultural marketing, legal advice, research and development, osteopathy, motorcycle preservation[citation needed] and cat-breeding[citation needed]
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Industrial And Provident Society
An industrial and provident society (IPS) was a legal entity for a trading business or voluntary organisation in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, and New Zealand. The name is still used in New Zealand,[1] the Republic of Ireland[2] and within the UK in Northern Ireland.[3] Recent legal developments in Great Britain
Great Britain
include the Co-operative and Community Benefit Societies Act 2014, which has renamed these societies as co-operative or community benefit societies. From 1 August 2014 a new society has had to register as either a co-operative or a community benefit society rather than, as was the case previously, a society that meets either requirement
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Community Interest Company
A community interest company (CIC) is a type of company introduced by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
government in 2005 under the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004, designed for social enterprises that want to use their profits and assets for the public good.[1] CICs are intended to be easy to set up, with all the flexibility and certainty of the company form, but with some special features to ensure they are working for the benefit of the community. They have proved popular and some 10,000 registered in the status's first 10 years.[2]


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Limited Liability Partnership
A limited liability partnership (LLP) is a partnership in which some or all partners (depending on the jurisdiction) have limited liabilities. It therefore exhibits elements of partnerships and corporations.[1] In an LLP, each partner is not responsible or liable for another partner's misconduct or negligence. This is an important difference from the traditional unlimited partnership under the Partnership
Partnership
Act 1890 (for the UK), in which each partner has joint and several liability. In an LLP, some partners have a form of limited liability similar to that of the shareholders of a corporation.[2] In some countries, an LLP must also have at least one person known as a "general partner" who has unlimited liability of the company
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