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Public Company
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over-the-counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be listed (listed company) or unlisted (unlisted public company). Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular states, and therefore have associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate in the polity in which they reside. For example one of the main public company forms in the United States
United States
is called a limited liability company (or LLC), in France is called a "society of limited responsibility" (SARL), in Britain a public limited company (plc), and in Germany a company with limited liability (GmbH)
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Financial Capital
Financial capital
Financial capital
is any economic resource measured in terms of money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or to provide their services to the sector of the economy upon which their operation is based, i.e
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Capital Gain
A capital gain refers to profit that results from a sale of a capital asset, such as stock, bond or real estate, where the sale price exceeds the purchase price
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Supermajority
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority. Related concepts regarding alternatives to the majority vote requirement include a majority of the entire membership and a majority of the fixed membership. A supermajority can also be specified based on the entire membership or fixed membership rather than on those present and voting. Parliamentary procedure
Parliamentary procedure
requires that any action of a deliberative assembly that may alter the rights
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Capital Market
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.[6] Capital markets channel the wealth of savers to those who can put it to long-term productive use, such as companies or governments making long-term investments.[a] Financial regulators like the Bank
Bank
of England (BoE) and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC) oversee capital markets to protect investors against fraud, among other duties. Modern capital markets are almost invariably hosted on computer-based electronic trading systems; most can be accessed only by entities within the financial sector or the treasury departments of governments and corporations, but some can be accessed directly by the public.[b] There are many thousands of such systems, most serving only small parts of the overall capital markets
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Edward Stringham
Edward Peter Stringham (born January 18, 1975) is an Austrian School American economist. He is the Davis Professor of Economic Innovation at Trinity College (Connecticut).[1] He received a B.A. in economics from College of the Holy Cross
College of the Holy Cross
and his Ph.D.
Ph.D.
from George Mason University.[2] He was Associate Professor at San Jose State University
San Jose State University
from 2002 to 2008, the F.A. Hayek Endowed visiting professor at University of Klagenfurt in 2008, and Shelby Cullom Davis visiting associate professor at Trinity College from 2008 to 2010.[3] He has also held faculty positions at Fayetteville State University and Texas Tech University.[4] He has been the editor of the Journal of Private Enterprise since 2006.[5] Additionally, he served as the President of the Association of Private Enterprise Education from 2006 to 2007
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Secondary Market
The secondary market, also called the aftermarket and follow on public offering is the financial market in which previously issued financial instruments such as stock, bonds, options, and futures are bought and sold.[1] Another frequent usage of "secondary market" is to refer to loans which are sold by a mortgage bank to investors such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The term "secondary market" is also used to refer to the market for any used goods or assets, or an alternative use for an existing product or asset where the customer base is the second market (for example, corn has been traditionally used primarily for food production and feedstock, but a "second" or "third" market has developed for use in ethanol production). With primary issuances of securities or financial instruments, or the primary market, investors purchase these securities directly from issuers such as corporations issuing shares in an IPO or private placement, or directly from the federal government in the case of
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Securities Exchange Act Of 1934
The Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Securities Exchange Act of 1934
(also called the Exchange Act, '34 Act, or 1934 Act) (Pub.L. 73–291, 48 Stat. 881, enacted June 6, 1934, codified at 15 U.S.C. § 78a et seq.) is a law governing the secondary trading of securities (stocks, bonds, and debentures) in the United States of America.[1] A landmark of wide-ranging legislation, the Act of '34 and related statutes form the basis of regulation of the financial markets and their participants in the United States. The 1934 Act also established the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC),[2] the agency primarily responsible for enforcement of United States federal securities law. Companies raise billions of dollars by issuing securities in what is known as the primary market
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Merger
Mergers and acquisitions
Mergers and acquisitions
(M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations or their operating units are transferred or combined. As an aspect of strategic management, M&A can allow enterprises to grow, shrink, and change the nature of their business or competitive position. From a legal point of view, a merger is a legal consolidation of two entities into one entity, whereas an acquisition occurs when one entity takes ownership of another entity's stock, equity interests or assets. From a commercial and economic point of view, both types of transactions generally result in the consolidation of assets and liabilities under one entity, and the distinction between a "merger" and an "acquisition" is less clear
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Principal-agent Problem
The principal–agent problem, in political science and economics, (also known as agency dilemma or the agency problem) occurs when one person or entity (the "agent") is able to make decisions on behalf of, or that impact, another person or entity: the "principal".[1] This dilemma exists in circumstances where agents are motivated to act in their own best interests, which are contrary to those of their principals, and is an example of moral hazard. Common examples of this relationship include corporate management (agent) and shareholders (principal), politicians (agent) and voters (principal), or brokers (agent) and markets (buyers and sellers, principals).[2] Consider a legal client (the principal) wondering whether their lawyer (the agent) is recommending protracted legal proceedings because it is truly necessary for the client's well being, or because it will generate income for the lawyer
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Enkhuizen
Enkhuizen
Enkhuizen
[ɛŋkˈɦœy̯zə(n)] ( listen) is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland
North Holland
and the region of West-Frisia.Contents1 History 2 Tourism 3 Industry 4 Population centres 5 Local government 6 Gallery 7 Transport 8 Notable residents 9 References9.1 Literature10 External linksHistory[edit]Historical populationYear Pop. ±% p.a.1398 1,900 —    1477 3,500 +0.78%1494 3,175 −0.57%1514 3,600 +0.63%1553 4,450 +0.54%1557 5,500 +5.44%1561 7,750 +8.95%1622 21,878 +1.72%1632 19,150 −1.32%1732 10,420 −0.61%1795 6,803 −0.67%Source: Lourens & Lucassen 1997, pp. 59–60 Enkhuizen
Enkhuizen
was one of the harbour-towns of the VOC, just like Hoorn
Hoorn
and Amsterdam, from where overseas trade with the East Indies
East Indies
was conducted
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Joint Venture
A joint venture (JV) is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownership, shared returns and risks, and shared governance. Companies typically pursue joint ventures for one of four reasons: to access a new market, particularly emerging markets; to gain scale efficiencies by combining assets and operations; to share risk for major investments or projects; or to access skills and capabilities.[1] According to Gerard Baynham of Water Street Partners, there has been a lot of negative press about joint ventures, but objective data indicate that they may actually outperform wholly owned and controlled affiliates. He writes, "A different narrative emerged from our recent analysis of U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) data, collected from more than 20,000 entities. According to the DOC data, foreign joint ventures of U.S
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Subsidiary
A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company[1][2][3] is a company that is owned or controlled by another company, which is called the parent company, parent, or holding company.[4][5] The subsidiary can be a company, corporation, or limited liability company. In some cases it is a government or state-owned enterprise. In some cases, particularly in the music and book publishing industries, subsidiaries are referred to as imprints. In the United States
United States
railroad industry, an operating subsidiary is a company that is a subsidiary but operates with its own identity, locomotives and rolling stock
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Gerald F. Davis
Gerald Fredrick (Jerry) Davis (born 1961) is an American sociologist, and Professor of Sociology at the University of Michigan, known for his work on corporate networks,[1] social movements[2] and organization theory.[3]Contents1 Life and work 2 Selected publications 3 References 4 External linksLife and work[edit] Davis obtained his AB in philosophy and psychology at the University of Michigan in 1984, his MA in Sociology from Stanford University, and his PhD in Organizational Behavior at the Stanford Graduate School of Business in 1990. After graduation Davis started his academic career at the Kellogg Graduate School of Management as assistant professor in 1990, and got promoted to associate professor. In 1994 he returned to the Stanford University Graduate School of Business as associate professor, and got promoted to full professor. In the year 1997–98 he was research fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford, California
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Numerical Control
Computer numerical control (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands. This is in contrast to machines that are manually controlled by hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated by cams alone. In modern CNC systems, the design of a mechanical part and its manufacturing program is highly automated. The part's mechanical dimensions are defined using computer-aided design (CAD) software, and then translated into manufacturing directives by computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software. The resulting directives are transformed (by "post processor" software) into the specific commands necessary for a particular machine to produce the component, and then are loaded into the CNC machine. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools – drills, saws, etc. – modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell"
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3D Printing
3D printing
3D printing
refers to processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object,[1] with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together). 3D printing
3D printing
is used in both rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing (AM). Objects can be of almost any shape or geometry and typically are produced using digital model data from a 3D model or another electronic data source such as an Additive Manufacturing File
File
(AMF) file (usually in sequential layers). There are many different technologies, like stereolithography (STL) or fused deposit modeling (FDM)
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