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Ptolemy
Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(/ˈtɒləmi/; Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos [kláwdios ptolɛmɛ́ːos]; Latin: Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemaeus; c. AD 100 – c. 170)[2] was a Greco-Roman[3] mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.[4][5] He lived in the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, and held Roman citizenship.[6] The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou
Ptolemais Hermiou
(Greek: Πτολεμαΐς ‘Ερμείου) in the Thebaid
Thebaid
(Greek: Θηβαΐδα [Θηβαΐς])
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Byzantium
Byzantium
Byzantium
or Byzantion
Byzantion
(/bɪˈzæntiəm, bɪˈzænʃəm/; Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul. Byzantium
Byzantium
was colonized by the Greeks
Greeks
from Megara
Megara
in c. 657 BC.Contents1 Name 2 History2.1 Emblem3 Notable people 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksName[edit] The etymology of Byzantion
Byzantion
is unknown
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Greek Anthology
The Greek Anthology
Greek Anthology
(Latin: Anthologia Graeca) is a collection of poems, mostly epigrams, that span the classical and Byzantine
Byzantine
periods of Greek literature. Most of the material of the Greek Anthology
Greek Anthology
comes from two manuscripts, the Palatine Anthology
Palatine Anthology
of the 10th century and the Anthology of Planudes
Anthology of Planudes
(or Planudean Anthology) of the 14th century.[1][2] While papyri containing fragments of collections of poetry have been found in Egypt, the earliest known anthology in Greek was compiled by Meleager of Gadara
Meleager of Gadara
in the first century BC, under the title Anthologia, or "Garland." It contained poems by the compiler himself and forty-six other poets, including Archilochus, Alcaeus, Anacreon, and Simonides
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Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
(Arabic: صعيد مصر‎ Ṣaʿīd Miṣr, shortened to الصعيد aṣ-Ṣeʿīd; pronounced [esˤːe.ˈʕiːd], Coptic: ⲙⲁⲣⲏⲥ) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile
Nile
that extends between Nubia
Nubia
and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.Contents1 Geography 2 History2.1 Predynastic Egypt 2.2 Dynastic Egypt 2.3 Medieval Egypt 2.4 20th-century Egypt3 List of rulers of prehistoric Upper Egypt 4 List of nomes 5 See also 6 Further reading 7 Notes 8 References8.1 Bibliography9 External linksGeography[edit] Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
is between the Cataracts of the Nile
Nile
above modern-day Aswan, downriver (northwards) to the area between Dahshur
Dahshur
and El-Ayait,[citation needed] which is south of modern-day Cairo
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Gregor Reisch
Gregor Reisch
Gregor Reisch
(born at Balingen
Balingen
in Württemberg, about 1467; died at Freiburg, Baden, 9 May 1525) was a German Carthusian
Carthusian
humanist writer. He is best known for his compilation Margarita philosophica.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 References 4 Notes 5 External linksLife[edit] In 1487 he became a student at the University of Freiburg, Baden, and received the degree of magister in 1489. He then entered the Carthusian
Carthusian
Order. During the years 1500-1502 he was prior at Klein-Basel; from 1503 to shortly before his death he was prior at Freiburg
Freiburg
Charterhouse. He was also visitor for the Rhenish province of his order. As visitor he made strenuous exertions to combat Lutheranism. He was a friend of the most celebrated Humanists of the era.[2] John Eck was his pupil
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Abu Ma'shar Al-Balkhi
Abu
Abu
or ABU may refer to:Contents1 Places 2 People 3 Other uses 4 See alsoPlaces[edit] Abu
Abu
(volcano), a volcano on the island of Honshū in Japan Mount Abu, the highest mountain in the Indian state of Rajasthan Abu, Yamagu
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Hellenization
Hellenization
Hellenization
or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
following the campaigns of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in the fourth century BC. The result of Hellenization
Hellenization
was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements; these Greek influences spread from the Mediterranean basin
Mediterranean basin
as far east as modern-day Pakistan
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Thebaid
The Thebaid
Thebaid
or Thebais (Greek: Θηβαΐς, Thēbaïs) was a region of ancient Egypt, which comprised the thirteen southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan.Contents1 Pharaonic history 2 Roman province(s) 3 Episcopal sees 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources and external linksPharaonic history[edit]Pyramidion of Nebamun. Possibly top of a stela. Limestone. 19th Dynasty. From Egypt. Bought in the Thebaid
Thebaid
(Thebais) but probably it came from Deir el-Medina. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, LondonThe Thebaid
Thebaid
acquired its name from its proximity to the ancient Egyptian capital of Thebes (Luxor)
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Babylonian Astronomical Diaries
The Babylonian astronomical diaries
Babylonian astronomical diaries
are a collection of Babylonian cuneiform texts which contain systematic records of astronomical observations and political events, as well as predictions based on astronomical observations. They also include other information, such as commodity prices for particular dates and weather reports.[1][2] Currently they are stored in the British Museum. It is suggested that the Diaries were used as sources for the Babylonian Chronicles.Contents1 History 2 Translation 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The Babylonians were the first to recognize that astronomical phenomena are periodic and apply mathematics to their predictions. The oldest known significant astronomical text is Tablet 63 of the Enûma Anu Enlil collection, the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, which lists the first and last visible risings of Venus over a period of about 21 years
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Claudius (gens)
The gens Claudia (Classical Latin: [ˈklawdɪa]), sometimes written Clodia, was one of the most prominent patrician houses at Rome. The gens traced its origin to the earliest days of the Roman Republic. The first of the Claudii to obtain the consulship was Appius Claudius
Claudius
Sabinus Regillensis, in 495 BC, and from that time its members frequently held the highest offices of the state, both under the Republic and in imperial times.[1] Plebeian Claudii are found fairly early in Rome's history
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Roman Citizenship
Citizenship in ancient Rome
Rome
(Latin: civitas) was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.A male Roman citizen enjoyed a wide range of privileges and protections defined in detail by the Roman state. A citizen could, under certain exceptional circumstances, be deprived of his citizenship. Roman women had a limited form of citizenship. Though held in high regard they were not allowed to vote or stand for civil or public office. The rich might participate in public life by funding building projects or sponsoring religious ceremonies and other events. Women had the right to own property, to engage in business, and to obtain a divorce, but their legal rights varied over time
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Roman Naming Conventions
Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans
Romans
and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean, consisting of a combination of personal and family names. Although conventionally referred to as the tria nomina, the combination of praenomen, nomen, and cognomen that have come to be regarded as the basic elements of the Roman name in fact represent a continuous process of development, from at least the seventh century BC to the end of the seventh century AD
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Epigram
An epigram is a brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes surprising or satirical statement. The word is derived from the Greek: ἐπίγραμμα epigramma "inscription" from ἐπιγράφειν epigraphein "to write on, to inscribe",[1] and the literary device has been employed for over two millennia. The presence of wit or sarcasm tends to distinguish non-poetic epigrams from aphorisms and adages, which may lack them.Contents1 Ancient Greek 2 Ancient Roman 3 English 4 Poetic 5 See also 6 Notes 7 External linksAncient Greek[edit] The Greek tradition of epigrams began as poems inscribed on votive offerings at sanctuaries – including statues of athletes – and on funerary monuments, for example "Go tell it to the Spartans, passersby...". These original epigrams did the same job as a short prose text might have done, but in verse
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Horoscopic Astrology
Horoscopic astrology
Horoscopic astrology
is a form of astrology that uses a horoscope, a visual representation of the heavens, for a specific moment in time in order to interpret the inherent meaning underlying the alignment of the planets at that moment. The idea is that the placement of the planets at any given moment in time reflects the nature of that moment and especially anything that is born then, and this can be analyzed using the chart and a variety of rules for interpreting the 'language' or symbols therein. One of the defining characteristics of this form of astrology that makes it distinct from other traditions is the computation of the degree of the Eastern horizon rising against the backdrop of the ecliptic at the specific moment under examination, known as the ascendant
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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