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Psychological Manipulation
PSYCHOLOGICAL MANIPULATION is a type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or perception of others through abusive , deceptive , or underhanded tactics. By advancing the interests of the manipulator, often at another's expense, such methods could be considered exploitative, abusive, devious, and deceptive. The process of manipulation involves bringing an unknowing victim under the domination of the manipulator, often using deception, and using the victim to serve their own purposes. CONTENTS * 1 Requirements for successful manipulation * 2 How manipulators control their victims * 2.1 According to Braiker * 2.2 According to Simon * 2.3 Vulnerabilities exploited by manipulators * 3 Motivations of manipulators * 4 Psychopathy * 4.1 In the workplace * 5 Antisocial, borderline and narcissistic personality disorders * 6 Histrionic personality disorder * 7 Machiavellianism * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Other references * 10.1 Books * 10.2 Academic journals * 11 External links REQUIREMENTS FOR SUCCESSFUL MANIPULATIONAccording to psychology author George K
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Social Influence
SOCIAL INFLUENCE occurs when a person's emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others. Social influence takes many forms and can be seen in conformity , socialization , peer pressure , obedience, leadership , persuasion , sales , and marketing . In 1958, Harvard psychologist Herbert Kelman identified three broad varieties of social influence. * COMPLIANCE is when people appear to agree with others but actually keep their dissenting opinions private. * IDENTIFICATION is when people are influenced by someone who is liked and respected, such as a famous celebrity. * INTERNALIZATION is when people accept a belief or behavior and agree both publicly and privately.Morton Deutsch and Harold Gerard described two psychological needs that lead humans to conform to the expectations of others. These include our need to be right (informational social influence ) and our need to be liked (normative social influence ). Informational influence (or _social proof_) is an influence to accept information from another as evidence about reality. Informational influence comes into play when people are uncertain, either because stimuli are intrinsically ambiguous or because there is social disagreement. Normative influence is an influence to conform to the positive expectations of others. In terms of Kelman's typology, normative influence leads to public compliance, whereas informational influence leads to private acceptance
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Perception
PERCEPTION (from the Latin
Latin
_perceptio_) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. All perception involves signals in the nervous system , which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sense organs. For example, vision involves light striking the retina of the eye, smell is mediated by odor molecules , and hearing involves pressure waves . Perception
Perception
is not the passive receipt of these signals, but is shaped by learning , memory , expectation , and attention . Perception
Perception
can be split into two processes. Firstly, processing sensory input, which transforms these low-level information to higher-level information (e.g., extracts shapes for object recognition). Secondly, processing which is connected with a person's concepts and expectations (knowledge) and selective mechanisms (attention ) that influence perception. Perception
Perception
depends on complex functions of the nervous system, but subjectively seems mostly effortless because this processing happens outside conscious awareness. Since the rise of experimental psychology in the 19th Century, psychology\'s understanding of perception has progressed by combining a variety of techniques
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Abuse
ABUSE is the improper usage or treatment of an entity , often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit. Abuse can come in many forms, such as: physical or verbal maltreatment, injury, assault , violation, rape , unjust practices, crimes , or other types of aggression
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Deceptive
DECEPTION, BEGUILEMENT, DECEIT, BLUFF, MYSTIFICATION, RUSE, or SUBTERFUGE is the act of propagating beliefs in things that are not true , or not the whole truth (as in half-truths or omission ). Deception
Deception
can involve dissimulation, propaganda , and sleight of hand , as well as distraction, camouflage, or concealment. There is also self-deception , as in bad faith . Deception
Deception
is a major relational transgression that often leads to feelings of betrayal and distrust between relational partners. Deception
Deception
violates relational rules and is considered to be a negative violation of expectations. Most people expect friends, relational partners, and even strangers to be truthful most of the time. If people expected most conversations to be untruthful, talking and communicating with others would require distraction and misdirection to acquire reliable information. A significant amount of deception occurs between some romantic and relational partners. Deceit and dishonesty can also form grounds for civil litigation in tort , or contract law (where it is known as misrepresentation or fraudulent misrepresentation if deliberate), or give rise to criminal prosecution for fraud . It also forms a vital part of psychological warfare in denial and deception
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George K. Simon
GEORGE K. SIMON (born February 1, 1948) is a bestselling author and frequent weblog contributor. His wife, Sherry Simon, Ph.D., is also a professional, living and working in Little Rock. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Writing career * 3 Television appearances * 4 Bibliography * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links LIFEGeorge K. Simon, Jr., Ph.D. received his degree in clinical psychology from Texas Tech University. He has studied and worked with manipulators, others with disturbed personalities, and their victims for many years. He has given more than 250 workshops and seminars as well as made television and radio appearances on the subject of dealing with manipulative people and other difficult personalities. WRITING CAREERSimon's first book, _In Sheep's Clothing: Understanding and Dealing with Manipulative People_, deals with manipulation . Simon discusses the tactics manipulators use to deceive and get the better of others. The book also offers tips on how to avoid being victimized and how to be more empowered in any relationship. His latest book, _Character Disturbance: the Phenomenon of Our Age_, attempts to provide an in-depth, but readily understandable explanation of the most difficult and problematic personalities a person is likely to encounter, as well as practical ways to keep from being victimized by them
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Aggression
AGGRESSION is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation. In humans, frustration due to blocked goals can cause aggression. Human aggression can be classified into direct and indirect aggression, whilst the first is characterized by physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm to someone, the second one is characterized by a behavior intended to harm social relations of an individual or a group. In definitions commonly used in the social sciences and behavioral sciences , aggression is a response by an individual that delivers something unpleasant to another person. Some definitions include that the individual must intend to harm another person. Predatory
Predatory
or defensive behavior between members of different species may not be considered aggression in the same sense. Aggression
Aggression
can take a variety of forms, which may be expressed physically, or communicated verbally or non-verbally: including anti-predator aggression, defensive aggression (fear-induced), predatory aggression, dominance aggression, inter-male aggression, resident-intruder aggression, maternal aggression, species-specific aggression, sex-related aggression, territorial aggression, isolation-induced aggression, irritable aggression, and brain-stimulation-induced aggression (hypothalamus)
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Vulnerabilities
VULNERABILITY refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. A WINDOW OF VULNERABILITY (WoV) is a time frame within which defensive measures are diminished, compromised or lacking. CONTENTS * 1 Common applications * 2 Research * 3 Types * 3.1 Social * 3.2 Cognitive * 3.3 Military * 4 Invulnerability * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links COMMON APPLICATIONSIn relation to hazards and disasters , vulnerability is a concept that links the relationship that people have with their environment to social forces and institutions and the cultural values that sustain and contest them. “The concept of vulnerability expresses the multi-dimensionality of disasters by focusing attention on the totality of relationships in a given social situation which constitute a condition that, in combination with environmental forces, produces a disaster”. It's also the extent to which changes could harm a system, or to which the community can be affected by the impact of a hazard or exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally: "we were in a vulnerable position"
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Relational Aggression
RELATIONAL AGGRESSION or ALTERNATIVE AGGRESSION is a type of aggression in which harm is caused by damaging someone's relationships or social status . Although it can be used in many contexts and among different age groups, relational aggression among adolescents in particular, has received a lot of attention. The attention relational aggression has received, has been augmented by the help of popular media, including movies like _ Mean Girls _ and books like _Odd Girl Out _ by R. Simmons (2003), Nesthäkchen and the World War by Else Ury
Else Ury
(1916), and _ Queen Bees and Wannabes _ by R. Wiseman (2003). Relational aggression can have various lifelong consequences . Relational aggression has been primarily observed and studied among girls, following pioneering research by psychologist Nicki R. Crick
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Passive Aggressive
PASSIVE-AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR is the indirect expression of hostility, such as through procrastination , controlling, stubbornness, sullen behavior, or deliberate or repeated failure to accomplish requested tasks for which one is (often explicitly) responsible. For research purposes, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) revision IV describes PASSIVE-AGGRESSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER as a "pervasive pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance in social and occupational situations." Passive-aggressive behaviour often utilises malicious compliance ; that is, veiling one's intent to avoid doing something by performing the specific task in a manner that causes an unwanted result. CONTENTS* 1 Concept in different areas * 1.1 Psychology * 1.2 Conflict theory
Conflict theory
* 1.3 Work * 2 Passive-aggressive personality disorder * 2.1 DSM-IV Appendix B * 2.2 Millon\'s subtypes * 2.3 Causes * 2.4 Treatment * 3 History * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links CONCEPT IN DIFFERENT AREASPSYCHOLOGYIn psychology, passive-aggressive behavior is characterized by a habitual pattern of passive resistance to expected work requirements, opposition, sullenness, stubbornness, and negative attitudes in response to requirements for normal performance levels expected of others
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Power And Control In Abusive Relationships
ABUSIVE POWER AND CONTROL (or CONTROLLING BEHAVIOUR or COERCIVE CONTROL) is the way that abusers gain and maintain power and control over a victim for an abusive purpose such as psychological , physical , sexual , or financial abuse. The abuse can be for various reasons such as personal gain, personal gratification , psychological projection , devaluation , acting out , envy or just for the sake of it as the abuser may simply enjoy exercising power and control. Controlling abusers may use multiple tactics to exert power and control over their victims. The tactics themselves are psychologically and sometimes physically abusive. Control may be helped through economic abuse thus limiting the victim's actions as they may then lack the necessary resources to resist the abuse. The goal of the abuser is to control and intimidate the victim or to influence them to feel that they do not have an equal voice in the relationship. Manipulators and abusers control their victims with a range of tactics, including positive reinforcement (such as praise , flattery , ingratiation , love bombing , smiling , gifts , attention), negative reinforcement , intermittent or partial reinforcement, psychological punishment (such as nagging , silent treatment , swearing , threats, intimidation , guilt trips , inattention) and traumatic tactics (such as verbal abuse or explosive anger )
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Positive Reinforcement
In behavioral psychology , REINFORCEMENT is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus . This strengthening effect may be measured as a higher frequency of behavior (e.g., pulling a lever more frequently), longer duration (e.g., pulling a lever for longer periods of time), greater magnitude (e.g., pulling a lever with greater force), or shorter latency (e.g., pulling a lever more quickly following the antecedent stimulus). Rewarding stimuli , which are associated with "wanting" and "liking" (desire and pleasure, respectively) and appetitive behavior, function as positive reinforcers ; the converse statement is also true: positive reinforcers provide a desirable stimulus. Reinforcement
Reinforcement
does not require an individual to consciously perceive an effect elicited by the stimulus. Thus, reinforcement occurs only if there is an observable strengthening in behavior. However, there is also negative reinforcement, which is characterized by taking away an undesirable stimulus. An ibuprofen is a negative reinforcer because it takes away pain
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Praise
PRAISE refers to positive evaluations made by a person of another's products, performances, or attributes, where the evaluator presumes the validity of the standards on which the evaluation is based. The influence of praise on an individual can depend on many factors, including the context, the meanings the praise may convey, and the characteristics and interpretations of the recipient. Praise is distinct from acknowledgement or feedback , which are more neutral forms of recognition, and encouragement, which is more future oriented. In addition, while praise may share some predictive relationships (both positive and negative) with tangible rewards, praise tends to be less salient and expected, conveys more information about competence, and is typically given more immediately after the desired behavior. CONTENTS * 1 As behavioral reinforcement * 2 Effects beyond behavior change * 3 Dimensions * 3.1 Person versus process * 3.2 Controlling versus informational * 3.3 Social-comparison versus mastery * 4 Factors that affect influence * 4.1 Age * 4.2 Gender * 4.3 Culture * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links AS BEHAVIORAL REINFORCEMENTThe concept of praise as a means of behavioral reinforcement is rooted in B.F. Skinner 's model of operant conditioning
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Superficial Charm
SUPERFICIAL CHARM (or INSINCERE CHARM or GLIB CHARM) is the tendency to be smooth, engaging, charming, slick and verbally facile. The phrase often appears in lists of attributes of psychopathic personalities, such as in Hervey M. Cleckley 's _ The Mask of Sanity _, and Robert D. Hare 's Hare Psychopathy Checklist . Associated expressions are "charm offensive ", "turning on the charm" and "superficial smile ". CONTENTS * 1 Early history * 2 Psychopathic charm * 2.1 Workplace * 3 Narcissism * 4 Social chameleons * 5 Positive outcomes * 6 Charm offensive * 7 Literary analogues * 8 Criticism * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links EARLY HISTORY Classical rhetoric had early singled out the critical category of the superficial charmer, whose merit was purely verbal, without underlying substance. In the nineteenth century, George Eliot explored the darker side of the Victorian feminine ideal, concluding bleakly that there was little worse than the narrow minded kind of femininity sheltering behind an artificial charm of manner. PSYCHOPATHIC CHARMContemporary interest in superficial charm goes back to Hervey M. Cleckley 's classic study (1941) of the sociopath: since his work it has become widely accepted that the sociopath/psychopath was characterised by superficial charm and a disregard for other people's feelings
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Sympathy
SYMPATHY (from the Greek words _syn_ "together" and _pathos_ "feeling" which means "fellow-feeling") is the perception, understanding, and reaction to the distress or need of another life form. This empathic concern is driven by a switch in viewpoint, from a personal perspective to the perspective of another group or individual who is in need. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Causes * 3 Evolutionary origins * 4 Communication * 5 Human behavior * 6 Healthcare * 7 Neuroscience perspectives * 8 Child development * 8.1 Theory of mind * 8.2 Innate feature * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links ETYMOLOGYThe words _empathy _ and _sympathy_ are often used interchangeably. Sympathy is a feeling, but the two terms have distinct origins and meanings. Merriam-Webster defines _empathy_ as "the feeling that you understand and share another person's experiences and emotions" or "the ability to share someone else's feelings", as _sympathy_ was defined by 18th century philosophers such as Adam Smith. Meanwhile, _sympathy_ is defined as "the feeling that you care about and are sorry about someone else's trouble, grief, misfortune, etc."; "a feeling of support for something"; or "a state in which different people share the same interests, opinions, goals, etc.", but not necessarily the feeling that you share another person's emotions
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Crocodile Tears
CROCODILE TEARS (or SUPERFICIAL SYMPATHY) are a false, insincere display of emotion such as a hypocrite crying fake tears of grief . The phrase derives from an ancient belief that crocodiles shed tears while consuming their prey, and as such is present in many modern languages, especially in Europe where it was introduced through Latin . While crocodiles do have tear ducts, they weep to lubricate their eyes, typically when they have been out of water for a long time and their eyes begin to dry out. However, evidence suggests this could also be triggered by feeding. Bogorad\'s syndrome is a condition which causes sufferers to shed tears while consuming food, so has been labelled "crocodile tears syndrome" with reference to the legend. CONTENTS* 1 History and usage * 1.1 In literature * 2 Actual crocodile behaviour * 3 Bogorad\'s syndrome * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY AND USAGEThe expression comes from an ancient anecdote that crocodiles weep for the victims they are eating. A collection of proverbs attributed to Plutarch
Plutarch
suggests that the phrase "crocodile tears" was well known in antiquity: comparing the crocodile's behaviour to people who desire or cause the death of someone, but then publicly lament for them. The story is given a Christian gloss in the Bibliotheca by early medieval theologian Photios
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