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Province
A PROVINCE is almost always an administrative division , within a country or state . The term derives from the ancient Roman provincia , which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire 's territorial possessions outside Italy. The term province has since been adopted by many countries, and in those with no actual provinces, it has come to mean "outside the capital city". While some provinces were produced artificially by colonial powers, others were formed around local groups with their own ethnic identities. Many have their own powers independent of federal authority, especially in Canada. In other countries, like China, provinces are the creation of central government, with very little autonomy
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Demesne
In the feudal system, the DEMESNE (/dɪˈmeɪn/ di-MAYN ) was all the land which was retained by a lord of the manor for his own use and support, under his own management, as distinguished from land sub-enfeoffed by him to others as sub-tenants. In England, ROYAL DEMESNE is the land held by the Crown , and ANCIENT DEMESNE is the legal term for the land held by the king at the time of the Domesday Book . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Development * 3 Royal demesne * 4 Derivative usage * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources ETYMOLOGYThe word derives from Old French demeine, ultimately from Latin dominus, "lord, master of a household" – demesne is a variant of domaine’'. The word barton, which is an element found in many place-names, can refer to a demesne farm: it derives from Old English
Old English
bere (barley) and ton (enclosure)
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Manorialism
MANORIALISM was an essential element of feudal society. It was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the Roman villa system of the Late Roman Empire , and was widely practiced in medieval western and parts of central Europe. It was slowly replaced by the advent of a money-based market economy and new forms of agrarian contract. Manorialism
Manorialism
was characterised by the vesting of legal and economic power in a Lord of the Manor
Manor
, supported economically from his own direct landholding in a manor (sometimes called a fief), and from the obligatory contributions of a legally subject part of the peasant population under the jurisdiction of himself and his manorial court . These obligations could be payable in several ways, in labor (the French term corvée is conventionally applied), in kind, or, on rare occasions, in coin
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Châtellenie
CHâTELAIN (Med. Lat. castellanus, from castellum, a castle) was originally merely the French equivalent of the English castellan , i.e. the commander of a castle. With the growth of the feudal system , however, the title gained in France
France
a special significance which it never acquired in England, as implying the jurisdiction of which the castle became the centre. The châtelain was originally, in Carolingian
Carolingian
times, an official of the count; with the development of feudalism the office became a fief , and so ultimately hereditary. In this as in other respects the châtelain was the equivalent of the viscount ; sometimes the two titles were combined, but more usually in those provinces where there were châtelains there were no viscounts, and vice versa. The title châtelain continued also to be applied to the inferior officer, or concierge châtelain, who was merely a castellan in the English sense
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Fernand Braudel
FERNAND BRAUDEL (French: ; 24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School . His scholarship focused on three main projects: The Mediterranean (1923–49, then 1949–66), Civilization and Capitalism
Capitalism
(1955–79), and the unfinished Identity of France (1970–85). His reputation stems in part from his writings, but even more from his success in making the Annales School the most important engine of historical research in France and much of the world after 1950. As the dominant leader of the Annales School of historiography in the 1950s and 1960s, he exerted enormous influence on historical writing in France and other countries. He was student of Henri Hauser (1866-1946). Braudel has been considered one of the greatest of the modern historians who have emphasized the role of large-scale socioeconomic factors in the making and writing of history
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Mexico
Coordinates : 23°N 102°W / 23°N 102°W / 23; -102 United Mexican States Estados Unidos Mexicanos (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Himno Nacional Mexicano
Himno Nacional Mexicano
" (English: "Mexican National Anthem") Capital and largest city Mexico City
Mexico City
19°26′N 99°08′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * None at federal level * Spanish (de facto) RECOGNIZED REGIONAL LANGUAGES* Spanish 68 native language groups
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Mexico City
MEXICO CITY, or the CITY OF MEXICO (Spanish: Ciudad de México, American Spanish: ( listen ); abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico
Mexico
and the most populous city in North America
North America
. Mexico
Mexico
City is one of the most important cultural and financial centers in the Americas
Americas
. It is located in the Valley of Mexico
Mexico
(Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico
Mexico
, at an altitude of 2,240 metres (7,350 ft). The city consists of sixteen boroughs . The 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres (573 sq mi)
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Poland
Coordinates : 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska (Polish ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "Mazurek Dąbrowskiego " (English: "
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Bucharest
Bucharester (en ) bucureștean, bucureșteancă (ro ) TIME ZONE EET ( UTC+2
UTC+2
) • SUMMER (DST ) EEST ( UTC+3
UTC+3
) POSTAL CODE 0xxxxx AREA CODE(S) +40 x1 CAR PLATE PREFIX B - NOMINAL GDP (IN 2015) $50 billion - PER CAPITA $21,000 WEBSITE pmb.ro a Romanian law stipulates that Bucharest
Bucharest
has a special administrative status which is equal to that of a County; b Bucharest metropolitan area is a proposed project. BUCHAREST (/ˈbjuːkərɛst/ ; Romanian : București, pronounced listen (help ·info )) is the capital and largest city of Romania
Romania
, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre
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Romania
Coordinates : 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25 Romania România (Romanian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Deșteaptă-te, române! '"Awaken thee, Romanian!" Location of Romania
Romania
(dark green) – in Europe
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House Of Capet
The HOUSE OF CAPET or the DIRECT CAPETIANS (French : Les Capétiens directs, la Maison capétienne), also called the HOUSE OF FRANCE (la maison de France), or simply THE CAPETS, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians . Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France
France
and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. It was not a contemporary practice (see House of France ). They were sometimes called "THE THIRD RACE OF KINGS", the Merovingians being the first, and the Carolingians being the second. The name is derived from the nickname of Hugh , the first Capetian King, who was known as Hugh Capet. The direct succession of French kings, father to son, from 987 to 1316, of thirteen generations in almost 330 years, was unparallelled in recorded history
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Popular Etymology
A FALSE ETYMOLOGY (POPULAR ETYMOLOGY, ETYMYTHOLOGY, PSEUDO-ETYMOLOGY, or PAR(A)ETYMOLOGY), sometimes called FOLK ETYMOLOGY – although the latter is also a technical term in linguistics - is a popularly held but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word. Such etymologies often have the feel of urban legends , and can be much more colorful and fanciful than the typical etymologies found in dictionaries, often involving stories of unusual practices in particular subcultures (e.g. Oxford students from non-noble families being supposedly forced to write sine nobilitate by their name, soon abbreviated to s.nob., hence the word snob). Many recent examples are "backronyms" (acronyms made up to explain a term), as in snob, and posh for "port outward, starboard homeward"; many other sourced examples are listed in the article on backronyms
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Fatherland
FATHERLAND is the nation of one's "fathers", "forefathers " or "ancestors ". It can be viewed as a nationalist concept, insofar as it is evocative of emotions related to family ties and links them to national identity and patriotism, but in the English language it can also simply mean the country of one's birth or origin. It can be compared to motherland and homeland , and some languages will use more than one of these terms. The national anthem of the Netherlands between 1815 and 1932, " Wien Neêrlands Bloed ", makes extensive use of the parallel Dutch word. The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
patris, fatherland, led to patrios, of our fathers and thence to the Latin
Latin
patriota and Old French
Old French
patriote, meaning compatriot; from these the English word patriotism is derived
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Nation-state
A NATION STATE is a type of state that joins the political entity of a state to the cultural entity of a nation , from which it aims to derive its political legitimacy to rule and potentially its status as a sovereign state . A state is specifically a political and geopolitical entity, whilst a nation is a cultural and ethnic one. The term "nation state" implies that the two coincide, in that a state has chosen to adopt and endorse a specific cultural group as associated with it. The concept of a nation state can be compared and contrasted with that of the multinational state , city state , empire , confederation , and other state formations with which it may overlap. The key distinction is the identification of a people with a polity in the "nation state"
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Country
A COUNTRY is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography . A country may be an independent sovereign state or one that is occupied by another state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division , or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics. Regardless of the physical geography, in the modern internationally accepted legal definition as defined by the League of Nations
League of Nations
in 1937 and reaffirmed by the United Nations
United Nations
in 1945, a resident of a country is subject to the independent exercise of legal jurisdiction. Sometimes countries refers both to sovereign states and to other political entities, while other times it refers only to states
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French Wars Of Religion
Uneasy Catholic- Protestant
Protestant
truce * House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
gains the French throne *
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