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Province
A PROVINCE is almost always an administrative division , within a country or state . The term derives from the ancient Roman _provincia _, which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
's territorial possessions outside Italy. The term province has since been adopted by many countries, and in those with no actual provinces, it has come to mean "outside the capital city". While some provinces were produced artificially by colonial powers, others were formed around local groups with their own ethnic identities. Many have their own powers independent of federal authority, especially in Canada. In other countries, like China, provinces are the creation of central government, with very little autonomy
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Administrative Division
An ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION, UNIT, ENTITY, AREA or REGION, also referred to as a SUBNATIONAL ENTITY, CONSTITUENT UNIT, or COUNTRY SUBDIVISION, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration . Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are usually required to manage themselves through their own local governments . Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. For example, a country may be divided into provinces , which, in turn, are divided into counties , which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities ; and so on. Administrative divisions are conceptually separate from dependent territories , with the former being an integral part of the state and the other being only under some lesser form of control
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Country
A COUNTRY is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography . A country may be an independent sovereign state or one that is occupied by another state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division , or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics. Regardless of the physical geography, in the modern internationally accepted legal definition as defined by the League of Nations in 1937 and reaffirmed by the United Nations in 1945, a resident of a country is subject to the independent exercise of legal jurisdiction. Sometimes _countries_ refers both to sovereign states and to other political entities, while other times it refers only to states
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Sovereign State
A SOVEREIGN STATE is, in international law , a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government , and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states . It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state . The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact . While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states , unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states
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Roman Province
In Ancient Rome , a PROVINCE ( Latin : _provincia_, pl. _provinciae_) was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy (293 AD), largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of Italy . The word _province_ in modern English has its origins in the term used by the Romans. Provinces were generally governed by politicians of senatorial rank, usually former consuls or former praetors . A later exception was the province of Egypt, incorporated by Augustus after the death of Cleopatra : it was ruled by a governor of equestrian rank only, perhaps as a discouragement to senatorial ambition. This exception was unique, but not contrary to Roman law, as Egypt was considered Augustus' personal property, following the tradition of earlier, Hellenistic kings
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracu
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ (_ listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca _. Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Old French
OLD FRENCH (_franceis_, _françois_, _romanz_; Modern French _ancien français_) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the _langue d\'oïl _, contrasting with the _langue d\'oc _ or Occitan language in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French , the language of the French Renaissance , specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France region
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine
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Magistrate
The term MAGISTRATE is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome , a _magistratus _ was one of the highest ranking government officers, and possessed both judicial and executive powers. In other parts of the world, such as China , a magistrate was responsible for administration over a particular geographic area. Today, in some jurisdictions, a magistrate is a judicial officer who hears cases in a lower court, and typically deals with more minor or preliminary matters. In other jurisdictions (e.g., England and Wales ), magistrates may be volunteers without formal legal training who perform a judicial role with regard to minor matters
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Popular Etymology
A FALSE ETYMOLOGY (POPULAR ETYMOLOGY, ETYMYTHOLOGY, PSEUDO-ETYMOLOGY, or PAR(A)ETYMOLOGY), sometimes called FOLK ETYMOLOGY – although the latter is also a technical term in linguistics - is a popularly held but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word. Such etymologies often have the feel of urban legends , and can be much more colorful and fanciful than the typical etymologies found in dictionaries, often involving stories of unusual practices in particular subcultures (e.g. Oxford students from non-noble families being supposedly forced to write _sine nobilitate_ by their name, soon abbreviated to _s.nob._, hence the word _snob_). Many recent examples are "backronyms" (acronyms made up to explain a term), as in _snob_, and _posh_ for "port outward, starboard homeward"; many other sourced examples are listed in the article on backronyms
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Roman Magistrates
The ROMAN MAGISTRATES were elected officials in Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
. During the period of the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
, the King of Rome was the principal executive magistrate. His power, in practice, was absolute. He was the chief priest , lawgiver , judge , and the sole commander of the army . When the king died, his power reverted to the Roman Senate , which then chose an Interrex to facilitate the election of a new king. During the transition from monarchy to republic, the constitutional balance of power shifted from the executive (the Roman king ) to the Roman Senate. When the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
was founded in 509 BC, the powers that had been held by the king were transferred to the Roman consuls , of which two were to be elected each year
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Roman Law
ROMAN LAW is the legal system of ancient Rome
Rome
, including Roman Military
Military
Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
and the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence , from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the _ Corpus Juris Civilis _ (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I . The historical importance of Roman law
Roman law
is reflected by the continued use of Latin
Latin
legal terminology in many legal systems influenced by it. After the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, the Roman law remained in effect in the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. From the 7th century onward, the legal language in the East was Greek. _Roman law_ also denotes the legal system applied in most of Western Europe
Europe
until the end of the 18th century
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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (_République française_ ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris , the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. PARIS (locally ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of France
France
. It has an area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and a population of 2,229,621 in 2015 within its administrative limits. The city is both a commune and department and forms the centre and headquarters of the Île-de- France
France
, or Paris
Paris
Region, which has an area of 12,012 square kilometres (4,638 square miles) and a population in 2016 of 12,142,802, comprising roughly 18 percent of the population of France
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