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Proto-Indo-Europeans
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Proto-Celtic
The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages. Its lexis can be confidently reconstructed on the basis of the comparative method of historical linguistics. As Celtic is a branch of the Indo-European language family, Proto-Celtic is a descendant of the Proto-Indo-European language. According to one theory, Celtic may be closest to the Italic languages, which together form an Italo-Celtic branch
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Italo-Celtic
In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic
Italo-Celtic
is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others. There is controversy about the causes of these similarities. They are usually considered to be innovations, likely to have developed after the breakup of the Proto-Indo-European language. It is also possible that some of these are not innovations, but shared conservative features, i.e. original Indo-European language features which have disappeared in all other language groups
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Proto-Indo-European Accent
Proto-Indo-European accent refers to the accentual system of Proto-Indo-European language.Contents1 Description 2 Reflexes 3 Unaccented words 4 Interpretation 5 Modern theories 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesDescription[edit] Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is usually reconstructed as having had variable lexical stress: the placement of the stress in a word (the accent) was not predictable by its phonological rules. Stressed syllables received a higher pitch than unstressed ones so PIE is often said to have had pitch accent. (That must not be confused with the other meaning of the term "pitch accent", which refers to a system of one or two syllables per word having one of at least two unpredictable tones, and the tones of any other syllables being predictable.) PIE accent could be mobile so it could change place throughout the inflectional paradigm
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Indo-European Ablaut
In linguistics, the Indo-European ablaut (pronounced /ˈæblaʊt/) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language
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Paeonian Language
The Paeonian language is the poorly attested language of the ancient Paeonians, whose kingdom once stretched north of Macedon
Macedon
into Dardania and in earlier times into southwestern Thrace. Several Paeonian words are known from classical sources:monapos, monaipos, the European bison tilôn, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias paprax, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias. Paprakas, masc. acc. pl.A number of anthroponyms (some known only from Paeonian coinage) are attested: Agis (Άγις), Patraos (Πατράος), Lycpeios (Λύκπειος), Audoleon
Audoleon
(Αυδολέων), Eupolemos (Εὐπόλεμος), Ariston (Αρίστων), etc
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Mysian Language
The Mysian language was spoken by Mysians
Mysians
inhabiting Mysia
Mysia
in north-west Anatolia. Little is known about the Mysian language. Strabo noted that their language was, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and Phrygian languages. As such, the Mysian language could be a language of the Anatolian group
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Messapian Language
Messapian (/mɛˈsæpiən, mə-, -ˈseɪ-/; also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of southeastern Italy, once spoken in the region of Apulia. It was spoken by the three Iapygian tribes of the region: the Messapians, the Peucetians
Peucetians
and the Daunians. The language has been preserved in about 300 inscriptions dating from the 6th to the 1st century BC. Messapian might have been related to the Illyrian language
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Liburnian Language
The Liburnians
Liburnians
(or Liburni)[1] were an ancient Illyrian tribe inhabiting the district called Liburnia,[2][3][4] a coastal region of the northeastern Adriatic between the rivers Arsia (Raša) and Titius (Krka) in what is now Croatia. According to legend they populated Kerkyra until shortly after the Corinthians settled the island, c
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Daco-Thracian
The linguistic classification of the ancient Thracian language
Thracian language
has long been a matter of contention and uncertainty, and there are widely varying hypotheses regarding its position among other Paleo-Balkan languages.[1][2] It is not contested, however, that the Thracian languages were Indo-European languages
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Graeco-Armenian
Graeco-Armenian
Graeco-Armenian
(or Helleno-Armenian) is the hypothetical common ancestor of Greek and Armenian that postdates Proto-Indo-European. Its status is comparable to that of the Italo-Celtic
Italo-Celtic
grouping: each is widely considered plausible without being accepted as established communis opinio
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Graeco-Aryan
Graeco-Aryan, or Graeco-Armeno-Aryan, is a hypothetical clade within the Indo-European family that would be the ancestor of Greek, Armenian, and the Indo-Iranian languages. Graeco-Aryan
Graeco-Aryan
unity would have become divided into Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian
Proto-Indo-Iranian
by the mid-3rd millennium BC
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Graeco-Phrygian
Graeco-Phrygian /ˌɡriːkoʊˈfrɪdʒiən/ is a hypothetical branch of the Indo-European language family
Indo-European language family
with two branches in turn: Greek and Phrygian. Greek has also been variously grouped with Armenian (Graeco-Armenian; Graeco-Aryan), Ancient Macedonian (Graeco-Macedonian) and, more recently, Messapian. Multiple or all of these, with the exception of Armenian, are sometimes (tentatively) classified under "Hellenic"; at other times, Hellenic is posited to consist of only Greek
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Indo-Hittite
In Indo-European linguistics, the term Indo-Hittite (also Indo-Anatolian) refers to Sturtevant's 1926 hypothesis that the Anatolian languages
Anatolian languages
may have split off a Pre-Proto-Indo-European language considerably earlier than the separation of the remaining Indo-European languages. The term may be somewhat confusing, as the prefix Indo- does not refer to the Indo-Aryan branch in particular, but is iconic for Indo-European, and the -Hittite part refers to the Anatolian language family as a whole. Proponents of the Indo-Hittite hypothesis claim the separation may have preceded the spread of the remaining branches by several millennia, possibly as early as 7000 BC. In this context, the proto-language before the split of Anatolian would be called Proto-Indo-Hittite, and the proto-language of the remaining branches, before the next split, presumably of Tocharian, would be called Proto-Indo-European (PIE)
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Thraco-Illyrian
Thraco-Illyrian is a hypothesis that the Thraco-Dacian and Illyrian languages comprise a distinct branch of Indo-European. Thraco-Illyrian is also used as a term merely implying a Thracian-Illyrian interference, mixture or sprachbund, or as a shorthand way of saying that it is not determined whether a subject is to be considered as pertaining to Thracian or Illyrian
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Proto-Indo-European Phonology
The phonology of the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) has been reconstructed by linguists, based on the similarities and differences among current and extinct Indo-European languages. Because PIE was not written, linguists must rely on the evidence of its earliest attested descendants, such as Hittite, Sanskrit, Ancient Greek, and Latin, to reconstruct its phonology. The reconstruction of abstract units of PIE phonological systems (i.e. segments, or phonemes in traditional phonology) is mostly uncontroversial, although areas of dispute remain
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