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Proto-Germanic Language
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Germanic developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three branches during the first half of the first millennium of the Common Era: West Germanic, East Germanic
East Germanic
and North Germanic, which however remained in contact over a considerable time, especially the Ingvaeonic languages (including English), which arose from West Germanic dialects and remained in continued contact with North Germanic. A defining feature of Proto-Germanic is the completion of Grimm's law, a set of sound changes that occurred between its status as a dialect of Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
and its gradual divergence into a separate language
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Dniepr
The Dnieper River
Dnieper River
(UK: /ˈdniːpər/,[1] US: /ˈniːpər/)[2], also known as: Dnepr (/ˈdnjɛpər/),[3] Dnyapro or Dnipro (/dniːˈproʊ/)[1]), is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia
Russia
and flowing through Russia, Belarus
Belarus
and Ukraine to the Black Sea. It is the longest river of Ukraine
Ukraine
and Belarus
Belarus
and the fourth-longest river in Europe. The total length is approximately 2,200 km (1,400 mi)[4] with a drainage basin of 504,000 square kilometres (195,000 sq mi). The river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations
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Przeworsk Culture
The Przeworsk[1] culture is part of an Iron Age
Iron Age
archaeological complex that dates from the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD.[2] It was located in what is now central and southern Poland - the upper Oder
Oder
to the Vistula
Vistula
basin, later spreading to parts of eastern Slovakia and Subcarpathia
Subcarpathia
ranging between the Oder
Oder
and the middle and upper Vistula
Vistula
Rivers and extending south towards the middle Danube into the headwaters of the Dniester
Dniester
and Tisza
Tisza
Rivers
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Negau Helmet
Negau helmet
Negau helmet
refers to one of 26 bronze helmets (23 of which are preserved) dating to c. 450 BC–350 BC, found in 1812 in a cache in Ženjak, near Negau, Duchy of Styria
Duchy of Styria
(now Negova, Slovenia).[1] The helmets are of typical Etruscan 'vetulonic' shape, sometimes described as of the Negau type. They were buried in c. 50 BC, shortly before the Roman invasion of the area. Helmets of the Negau type were typically worn by priests at the time of deposition of these helmets, so they seem to have been left at the Ženjak
Ženjak
site for ceremonial reasons. The village of Ženjak
Ženjak
was of great interest to German archaeologists during the Nazi
Nazi
period and was briefly renamed Harigast during World War II
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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Tacitus
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus
Tacitus
(/ˈtæsɪtəs/; Classical Latin: [ˈtakɪtʊs]; c. 56 – c. 120 AD) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors
Year of the Four Emperors
(69 AD). These two works span the history of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from the death of Augustus, in 14 AD, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War, in 70 AD
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Germania (book)
The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 AD and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (Latin: De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.Contents1 Contents 2 Purpose and sources 3 Reception 4 Codex Aesinas 5 Editions and translations 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksContents[edit] The Germania
Germania
begins with a description of the lands, laws, and customs of the Germanic people (Chapters 1–27); it then describes individual tribes, beginning with those dwelling closest to Roman lands and ending on the uttermost shores of the Baltic, among the amber-gathering Aesti, the Fenni, and the unknown tribes beyond them. Tacitus
Tacitus
says (Ch
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The Penguin Atlas Of World History
The Penguin Atlas of World History is a two-volume, paperback-sized historical atlas first published by Penguin Books in 1974, with the latest edition published in 2004. It was translated from a German atlas, Atlas zur Weltgeschichte by Hermann Kinder and Werner Hilgemann, originally published by Deutsche Taschenbuch Verlag ten years prior to the first English edition, in 1964. Volume 1 encompasses pre-history to the eve of the French Revolution, and Volume 2 includes the Revolution itself and extends to the Iraq War. The book is formatted such that maps appear on the left-hand page with accompanying textual notations on the right, as opposed to most larger-format atlases that feature irregular and mixed formatting of text and maps
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East Germanic
Germanic peoplesEast Germanic peoplesGeographic distribution Varying depending on time (4th-18th centuries), currently none (all languages are extinct)Until late 4th century:[1] Central and eastern Europe (as far as Crimea) late 4th—early 10th centuries:[2] Much of southern, western, southeastern, and eastern Europe (as far as Crimea) and North Africa early 10th-late 18th centuries:[3] Isolated areas in eastern Europe (as far as Crimea)Linguistic classification Indo-EuropeanGermanicEast GermanicSubdivisionsBurgundian dialects Gothic dialects Vandalic
Vandalic
dialectsI
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Oksywie Culture
The Oksywie
Oksywie
culture (ger. Oxhöft-Kultur) was an archaeological culture that existed in the area of modern-day Eastern Pomerania around the lower Vistula
Vistula
river from the 2nd century BC to the early 1st century AD. It is named after the village of Oksywie, now part of the city of Gdynia
Gdynia
in northern Poland, where the first archaeological finds typical of this culture were discovered. Archaeological research during the past recent decades near Pomerania in Poland
Poland
suggests that the transition of the local component of the Pomeranian culture
Pomeranian culture
into the Oksywie
Oksywie
culture occurred in the 2nd century BC
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Funnelbeaker Culture
Near East Ghassulian
Ghassulian
culture, Naqada culture, Uruk periodEuropeYamna culture, Corded Ware Cernavodă culture, Decea Mureşului culture, Gorneşti culture, Gumelniţa–Karanovo culture, Petreşti culture, Coțofeni culture Remedello culture, Gaudo culture, Monte Claro cultureCentral AsiaYamna culture, Botai culture, BMAC culture, Afanasevo cultureSouth AsiaPeriodisation of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Bhirrana
Bhirrana
culture, Hakra Ware culture, Kaytha
Kaytha
culture, Ahar-Banas culture Savalda Culture, Malwa culture, Jorwe cultureChina MesoamericaMetallurgy, Wheel, Domestication
Domestication
of the horse↓ Bronze Agev t eThe Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture, in short TRB or TBK (German: Trichter(-rand-)becherkultur, Dutch: Trechterbekercultuur; c. 4300 BC–c. 2800 BC) was an archaeological culture in north-central Europe
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Runic Inscriptions
A runic inscription is an inscription made in one of the various runic alphabets. The body of runic inscriptions falls into the three categories of Elder Futhark
Elder Futhark
(some 350 items, dating to between the 2nd and 8th centuries AD), Anglo-Frisian Futhorc
Anglo-Frisian Futhorc
(some 100 items, 5th to 11th centuries) and Younger Futhark
Younger Futhark
(close to 6,000 items, 8th to 12th centuries).[1][2] The total 350 known inscriptions in the Elder Futhark
Elder Futhark
script[3] fall into two main geographical categories, North Germanic (Scandinavian, c. 267 items) and Continental or South Germanic ("German" and Gothic, c
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Continental Celtic
The Continental Celtic languages
Celtic languages
are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of the British Isles
British Isles
and Brittany. Continental Celtic is a geographic, not a linguistic, grouping of the ancient Celtic languages. The Continental Celtic languages
Celtic languages
were spoken by the people known to Roman and Greek writers as Keltoi, Celtae, Galli and Galatae. These languages were spoken in an arc stretching across from Iberia in the west to the Balkans
Balkans
and Anatolia
Anatolia
in the east. Even though Breton is spoken in continental Europe, and has been since at least the 6th century AD, it is not considered one of the Continental Celtic languages. It is a Brittonic language closely related to Cornish and Welsh
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La Tène Culture
The La Tène culture
La Tène culture
(/ləˈtɛn/; French pronunciation: ​[la tɛn]) was a European Iron Age
Iron Age
culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel
Lake Neuchâtel
in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.[1] La Tène is the type site and the term archaeologists use for the later period of the culture and art of the ancient Celts, a term that is firmly entrenched in the popular understanding, but presents numerous problems for historians and archaeologists.[2] The culture became very widespread, and presents a wide variety of local differences
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Danube
The Danube
Danube
or Donau (/ˈdænjuːb/ DAN-yoob, known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe. The Danube
Danube
was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube
Danube
flows southeast for 2,860 km (1,780 mi), passing through or touching the border of Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine
Ukraine
before emptying into the Black Sea. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries
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Upper Rhine
The Upper Rhine (German: Oberrhein) is the section of the Rhine in the Upper Rhine Plain between Basle in Switzerland and Bingen in Germany. The river is marked by Rhine-kilometres 170 to 529 (the scale beginning in Konstanz and ending in Rotterdam). The Upper Rhine is one of four sections of the river (the others being the High Rhine, Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine) between Lake Constance and the North Sea. The countries and states along the Upper Rhine are Switzerland, France (Alsace) and the German states of Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse. The largest cities along the river are Basle, Mulhouse, Strasbourg, Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Ludwigshafen and Mainz. The Upper Rhine was straightened between 1817 and 1876 by Johann Gottfried Tulla and made navigable between 1928 and 1977
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