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Protein
PROTEINS (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ᵻnz/ ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms , including catalysing metabolic reactions , DNA replication
DNA replication
, responding to stimuli , and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide . A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides , or sometimes oligopeptides
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Scaffolding
SCAFFOLDING, also called SCAFFOLD or STAGING, is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings , bridges and all other man made structures.Scaffolds are widely used on site to get access to heights and areas that would be otherwise hard to get to. Unsafe scaffolding has the potential to result in death or serious injury. Scaffolding
Scaffolding
is also used in adapted forms for formwork and shoring, grandstand seating, concert stages, access/viewing towers, exhibition stands, ski ramps, half pipes and art projects. There are four main types of scaffolding used worldwide today. These are Tube and Coupler (fitting) components, prefabricated modular system scaffold components, H-frame / facade modular system scaffolds, and timber scaffolds
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Catalysis
CATALYSIS (/kəˈtælᵻsᵻs/ ) is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a CATALYST (/ˈkætəlᵻst/ ), which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required in principle. In general, reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy . In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst
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Half-life
HALF-LIFE (symbol T1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly unstable atoms undergo, or how long stable atoms survive, radioactive decay . The term is also used more generally to characterize any type of exponential or non-exponential decay. For example, the medical sciences refer to the biological half-life of drugs and other chemicals in the human body. The converse of half-life is doubling time . The original term, half-life period, dating to Ernest Rutherford 's discovery of the principle in 1907, was shortened to half-life in the early 1950s. Rutherford applied the principle of a radioactive element\'s half-life to studies of age determination of rocks by measuring the decay period of radium to lead-206
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Cell Adhesion
CELL ADHESION is the process by which cells interact and attach to a surface , substrate or another cell, mediated by interactions between molecules of the cell surface. Cell adhesion
Cell adhesion
occurs from the action of transmembrane glycoproteins, called cell adhesion molecules . Examples of these proteins include selectins , integrins , syndecans , and cadherins . Cellular adhesion is essential in maintaining multicellular structure . Cellular adhesion can link cells in different ways and can be involved in signal transduction . Cell adhesion is also essential for the pathogenesis of infectious organisms
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Intracellular Transport
INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT is the movement of vesicles and substances within the cell . Eukaryotic cells transport packets of components (membrane‐bound vesicles and organelles, protein rafts, mRNA, chromosomes) to particular intracellular locations by attaching them to molecular motors that haul them along microtubules and actin filaments. This method of transport is often confused with intercellular transport, which deals solely with the movement of cargo between cells not the net movement within a cell. Since intracellular transport heavily relies on microtubules for movement, the components of the cytoskeleton play a vital role in trafficking vesicles between organelles and the plasma membrane. Intracellular transport between the Golgi and Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
The cell is not a static structure; it is akin to a large city with an intricate highway system connecting one area to the next
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Diet (nutrition)
In nutrition , DIET is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism . The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores , each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy. Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins , minerals , essential amino acids from protein and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food, also food energy in the form of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life , health and longevity
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Nucleic Acid
NUCLEIC ACIDS are biopolymers , or large biomolecules , essential to all known forms of life . They are composed of monomers , which are nucleotides made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar , a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base . If the sugar is a simple ribose , the polymer is RNA
RNA
(ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose , the polymer is DNA
DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid). Nucleic acids are the most important of all biomolecules. They are found in abundance in all living things, where they function to create and encode and then store information in the nucleus of every living cell of every life-form organism on Earth. In turn, they function to transmit and express that information inside and outside the cell nucleus—to the interior operations of the cell and ultimately to the next generation of each living organism
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Residue (biochemistry)
In chemistry RESIDUE is whatever remains or acts as a contaminant after a given class of events. Residue may be the material remaining after a process of preparation, separation, or purification, such as distillation , evaporation , or filtration . It may also denote the undesired by-products of a chemical reaction . CONTENTS * 1 Food safety * 2 Characterisic units within a molecule * 3 Biochemistry
Biochemistry
* 4 References FOOD SAFETYToxic chemical residues, wastes or contamination from other processes, are a concern in food safety. For example, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) have guidelines for detecting chemical residues that are possibly dangerous to consume. 3D image of Aflatoxin CHARACTERISIC UNITS WITHIN A MOLECULERESIDUE may refer to an atom or a group of atoms that forms part of a molecule, such as a methyl group
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DNA Replication
In molecular biology , DNA
DNA
REPLICATION is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA
DNA
from one original DNA molecule. This process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance . The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA
DNA
essential. DNA
DNA
is made up of a double helix of two complementary strands. During replication, these strands are separated. Each strand of the original DNA
DNA
molecule then serves as a template for the production of its counterpart, a process referred to as semiconservative replication . Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA
DNA
replication. In a cell , DNA
DNA
replication begins at specific locations, or origins of replication , in the genome
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Heme Group
HEME or HAEM (from Greek αἷμα haima meaning blood) is a cofactor consisting of an Fe2+ (ferrous ) ion contained in the centre of a heterocyclic macrocycle organic compound called a porphyrin , made up of four pyrrolic groups joined together by methine bridges. Not all porphyrins contain iron , but a substantial fraction of porphyrin-containing metalloproteins have heme as their prosthetic group ; these are known as hemoproteins . Hemes are most commonly recognized as components of hemoglobin , the red pigment in blood , but are also found in a number of other biologically important hemoproteins such as myoglobin , cytochrome , catalase , heme peroxidase , and endothelial nitric oxide synthase
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Polysaccharide
POLYSACCHARIDES are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides . They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen , and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin . Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks. They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water. When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan, but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans
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Oligopeptide
An OLIGOPEPTIDE, often just called peptide (oligo-, "a few"), consists of two to twenty amino acids and can include dipeptides , tripeptides , tetrapeptides , and pentapeptides . There have been more than 600 oligopeptide variants described, and about half of them are separated into seven classes (based on molecular structure): aeruginosins , cyanopeptolins , microcystins , microviridins , microginins , anabaenopeptins and cyclamides . Microcystins are best studied, because of their potential toxicity impact in drinking water. A review of some oligopeptides found that the largest class are the cyanopeptolins (40.1%), followed by microcystins (13.4%). CONTENTS * 1 Production * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PRODUCTION Oligopeptide
Oligopeptide
classes are produced by nonribosomal peptides synthases (NRPS), except cyclamides and microviridins are synthesized through ribosomic pathways
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Cell Cycle
THE CELL CYCLE or CELL-DIVISION CYCLE is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA
DNA
( DNA replication
DNA replication
) to produce two daughter cells. In bacteria , which lack a cell nucleus , the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA
DNA
replication. DNA replication
DNA replication
occurs during the C period. The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells. In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes , the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase , the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis . During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA
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Organism
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, organismos) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
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Archaea
The ARCHAEA (/ɑːrˈkiːə/ ( listen ) or /ɑːrˈkeɪə/ ar-KEE-ə or ar-KAY-ə ) constitute a domain and kingdom of single-celled microorganisms . These microbes (ARCHAEA; singular ARCHAEON) are prokaryotes , meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells. Archaea
Archaea
were initially classified as bacteria , receiving the name ARCHAEBACTERIA (in the Archaebacteria kingdom), but this classification is outdated. Archaeal cells have unique properties separating them from the other two domains of life, Bacteria
Bacteria
and Eukaryota . The Archaea
Archaea
are further divided into multiple recognized phyla . Classification is difficult because the majority have not been isolated in the laboratory and have only been detected by analysis of their nucleic acids in sa