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Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Intracellular Transport
Intracellular transport
Intracellular transport
is the movement of vesicles and substances within the cell. Eukaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells
transport packets of components (membrane‐bound vesicles and organelles, protein rafts, mRNA, chromosomes) to particular intracellular locations by attaching them to molecular motors that haul them along microtubules and actin filaments. This method of transport is often confused with intercellular transport, which deals solely with the movement of cargo between cells not the net movement within a cell
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Diet (nutrition)
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.[1] The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy. Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids from protein and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food, also food energy in the form of carbohydrate, protein, and fat
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Scaffolding
Scaffolding, also called scaffold [1] or staging,[2] is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man made structures. Scaffolds are widely used on site to get access to heights and areas that would be otherwise hard to get to.[3] Unsafe scaffolding has the potential to result in death or serious injury. Scaffolding
Scaffolding
is also used in adapted forms for formwork and shoring, grandstand seating, concert stages, access/viewing towers, exhibition stands, ski ramps, half pipes and art projects. There are five main types of scaffolding used worldwide today. These are Tube and Coupler (fitting) components, prefabricated modular system scaffold components, H-frame / facade modular system scaffolds, timber scaffolds and bamboo scaffolds (particularly in China)
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Half-life
Half-life
Half-life
(symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly unstable atoms undergo, or how long stable atoms survive, radioactive decay. The term is also used more generally to characterize any type of exponential or non-exponential decay. For example, the medical sciences refer to the biological half-life of drugs and other chemicals in the human body
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Cell Adhesion
Cell adhesion
Cell adhesion
is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface. This process can occur either through direct contact between cell surfaces or indirect interaction, where cells attach to surrounding extracellular matrix, a gel-like structure containing molecules released by cells into spaces between them.[1] Cells adhesion occurs from the interactions between cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs),[2] transmembrane proteins located on the cell surface
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Catalysis
Catalysis
Catalysis
(/kəˈtælɪsɪs/) is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst[1] (/ˈkætəlɪst/), which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required in principle.[2] In general, the reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy. In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst
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Heme Group
Heme
Heme
or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands."[1] The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.[2] Many porphyrin-containing metalloproteins have heme as their prosthetic group; these are known as hemoproteins. Hemes are most commonly recognized as components of hemoglobin, the red pigment in blood, but are also found in a number of other biologically important hemoproteins such as myoglobin, cytochromes, catalases, heme peroxidase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase.[3][4] The word heme is derived from Greek αἷμα haima meaning blood. Space-filling model
Space-filling model
of the Fe-protoporphyrin IX subunit of heme B. Axial ligands omitted
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Nucleic Acid
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life. They are composed of nucleotides, which are monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a compound ribose, the polymer is RNA
RNA
(ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA
DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid). Nucleic acids are the most important of all biomolecules. They are found in abundance in all living things, where they function to create and encode and then store information in the nucleus of every living cell of every life-form organism on Earth. In turn, they function to transmit and express that information inside and outside the cell nucleus—to the interior operations of the cell and ultimately to the next generation of each living organism
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Residue (biochemistry)
In chemistry residue is whatever remains or acts as a contaminant after a given class of events. Residue may be the material remaining after a process of preparation, separation, or purification, such as distillation, evaporation, or filtration. It may also denote the undesired by-products of a chemical reaction.Contents1 Food safety 2 Characterisic units within a molecule 3 Biochemistry 4 ReferencesFood safety[edit] Toxic chemical residues, wastes or contamination from other processes, are a concern in food safety. For example, the U.S
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DNA Replication
In molecular biology, DNA
DNA
replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA
DNA
from one original DNA molecule. This process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance. The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA
DNA
essential. DNA
DNA
is made up of a double helix of two complementary strands. During replication, these strands are separated
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Polysaccharide
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin. Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks
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Oligopeptide
An oligopeptide, often just called peptide (oligo-, "a few"), consists of two to twenty amino acids and can include dipeptides, tripeptides, tetrapeptides, and pentapeptides. Some of the major classes of naturally occurring oligopeptides include aeruginosins, cyanopeptolins, microcystins, microviridins, microginins, anabaenopeptins, and cyclamides
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Archaea
Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
or perhaps Eoarchean
Eoarchean
– recent Halobacterium
Halobacterium
sp. strain NRC-1, each cell about 5 μm longScientific classification Domain: Archaea Woese, Kandler & Wheelis, 1990[1]Kingdoms[3] and phyla[4]"Euryarchaeota" Woese et al. 1990"Methanopyri" Garrity and Holt 2002 "Methanococci" Boone 2002 "Eurythermea" Cavalier-Smith 2002[2] "Neobacteria" Cavalier-Smith 2002[2]"DPANN""ARMAN""Micrarchaeota" Baker et al. 2010 "Parvarchaeota" Rinke et al. 2013"Aenigmarchaeota" Rinke et al. 2013 "Diapherotrites" Rinke et al. 2013 "Nanoarchaeota" Huber et al. 2002 "Nanohaloarchaeota" Rinke et al. 2013 "Pacearchaeota" Castelle et al. 2015 "Woesearchaeota" Castelle et al. 2015"Proteoarchaeota" Petitjean et al. 2014"TACK""Aigarchaeota" Nunoura et al. 2011 "Bathyarchaeota" Meng et al
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Cell Cycle
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA
DNA
( DNA
DNA
replication) to produce two daughter cells. In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA
DNA
replication. DNA replication
DNA replication
occurs during the C period. The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells.[1] In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis. During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. During the mitotic phase, the chromosomes separate
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Organism
In biology, an organism (from Greek: οργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea.[1] All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli. Humans are multicellular animals composed of many trillions of cells which differentiate during development into specialized tissues and organs. An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote. Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains—bacteria and archaea
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