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Prose Edda
The Prose Edda, also known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda (Icelandic: Snorra Edda) or, historically, simply as Edda, is an Old Norse work of literature written in Iceland
Iceland
in the early 13th century. The work is often assumed to have been written, or at least compiled, by the Icelandic scholar, lawspeaker and historian Snorri Sturluson around the year 1220. It begins with a euhemerized Prologue, a section on the Norse cosmogony, pantheon and myths.[1] This is followed by three distinct books: Gylfaginning
Gylfaginning
(consisting of around 20,000 words), Skáldskaparmál
Skáldskaparmál
(around 50,000 words) and Háttatal (around 20,000 words). Seven manuscripts, dating from around 1300 to around 1600, have independent textual value. Sturluson planned the collection as a textbook
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Lawspeaker
A lawspeaker or lawman (Swedish: lagman, Old Swedish: laghmaþer or laghman, Danish: lovsigemand, Norwegian: lagmann, Icelandic: lög(sögu)maður, Faroese: løgmaður, Finnish: laamanni) is a unique Scandinavian legal office. It has its basis in a common Germanic oral tradition, where wise people were asked to recite the law, but it was only in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
that the function evolved into an office. Two of the most famous lawspeakers are Snorri Sturluson
Snorri Sturluson
and Þorgnýr the Lawspeaker.Contents1 Sweden 2 Finland 3 Norway 4 Iceland4.1 List of Icelandic lawspeakers5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesSweden[edit] In Sweden, this office was the most important one of regional governments, where each lagsaga (usually the same as the traditional province) was the jurisdiction of a lawspeaker who was subordinate to the lawspeaker of Tiundaland
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Danish Language
Danish /ˈdeɪnɪʃ/ ( listen) (dansk pronounced [ˈdanˀsɡ] ( listen); dansk sprog, [ˈdanˀsɡ ˈsbʁɔwˀ]) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark
Denmark
and in the region of Southern Schleswig
Southern Schleswig
in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.[3] Also, minor Danish-speaking communities are found in Norway, Sweden, Spain, the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina. Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland
Greenland
speak Danish as their home language. Along with the other North Germanic languages, Danish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
who lived in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
during the Viking Era
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Faroese Language
Faroese[4] (/ˌfɛəroʊˈiːz, -ˈiːs/; Faroese: føroyskt mál, pronounced [ˈføːɹɪst ma:l]; Danish: færøsk, pronounced [ˈfɛɐ̯ˌøːˀsɡ]) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark. It is one of five languages descended from Old West Norse spoken in the Middle Ages, the others being Norwegian, Icelandic, and the extinct Norn and Greenlandic Norse
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Icelandic Language
Icelandic /aɪsˈlændɪk/ ( listen) (Icelandic: íslenska, pronounced ['iːs(t)lɛnska] ( listen)) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland. It is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic or Nordic branch of the Germanic languages. Historically, it was the westernmost of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
prior to the Portuguese settlement in the Azores. Icelandic, Faroese, Norn, and Western Norwegian formerly constituted West Nordic; Danish, Eastern Norwegian and Swedish constituted East Nordic. Modern Norwegian Bokmål
Bokmål
is influenced by both groups, leading the Nordic languages to be divided into mainland Scandinavian languages
Scandinavian languages
and Insular Nordic (including Icelandic). Most Western European languages have greatly reduced levels of inflection, particularly noun declension
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Norwegian Language
no – inclusive code Individual codes: nb – Bokmål nn – NynorskISO 639-2nor – inclusive code Individual codes: nob – Bokmål nno – NynorskISO 639-3 nor – inclusive code Individual codes: nob – Bokmål nno – NynorskGlottolog norw1258[2]Linguasphere 52-AAA-ba to -be; 52-AAA-cf to -cgAreas where Norwegian is spoken, including North Dakota
North Dakota
(where 0.4% of the population speaks Norwegian) and Minnesota
Minnesota
(0.1% of the population) (Data: U.S. Census 2000).This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Swedish Language
Swedish ( svenska (help·info) [²svɛnːska]) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era
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Iceland
Iceland
Iceland
(/ˈaɪslənd/ ( listen); Icelandic: Ísland, pronounced [ˈistlant])[7] is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 348,580 and an area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.[8] The capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík
Reykjavík
and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland
Iceland
is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains, and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland
Iceland
is warmed by the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic
Arctic
Circle
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Oddi
Oddi is a town and church at Rangárvellir in Rangárvallasýsla, Iceland. Oddi at Rangárvellir was a cultural and learning center in South Iceland during the Middle Ages. There has been a church at Oddi since the introduction of Christianity. The current church at Oddi dates from 1924. [1] [2] [3] For centuries it was the central home of the powerful family, Oddaverjar. The two best known leaders in Oddi were Sæmundur Sigfússon the Learned (1056-1133) and his grandson Jón Loftsson (1124-1197). The famous historian Snorri Sturluson (1178-1241) was brought up and educated in Oddi by Jón Loftsson. It has been suggested that the name of the Edda is derived from Oddi.[4] [5] Iceland's patron saint Þorlákur Þórhallsson received his education at Oddi from the age of nine (1142-1147) and looked upon the priest Eyjólfur Saemundsson as his foster-father
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Proto-Germanic Language
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Germanic developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three branches during the first half of the first millennium of the Common Era: West Germanic, East Germanic
East Germanic
and North Germanic, which however remained in contact over a considerable time, especially the Ingvaeonic languages (including English), which arose from West Germanic dialects and remained in continued contact with North Germanic. A defining feature of Proto-Germanic is the completion of Grimm's law, a set of sound changes that occurred between its status as a dialect of Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
and its gradual divergence into a separate language
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Linguistics
Linguistics
Linguistics
is the scientific[1] study of language,[2] and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.[3] The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini,[4][5] who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.[6] Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning.[7] Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties
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History
—George Santayana History
History
(from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation")[2] is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.[3][4] Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Bishop
A bishop (English derivation[a][1][2][3] from the New Testament
New Testament
of the Christian Bible Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic
Catholic
Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic
Old Catholic
and Independent Catholic churches
Independent Catholic churches
and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop
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