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Proof (truth)
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eA proof is sufficient evidence or a sufficient argument for the truth of a proposition.[1][2][3][4] The concept applies in a variety of disciplines,[5] with both the nature of the evidence or justification and the criteria for sufficiency being area-dependent
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Formal System
A formal system or logical calculus is any well-defined system of abstract thought based on the model of mathematics. A formal system need not be mathematical as such; for example, Spinoza's Ethics imitates the form of Euclid's Elements
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Logic
Logic
Logic
(from the Ancient Greek: λογική, translit. logikḗ[1]), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth,[2] and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference. A valid inference is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the inference and its conclusion. (In ordinary discourse, inferences may be signified by words like therefore, hence, ergo, and so on.) There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see § Rival conceptions, below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the 'logical form' common to all valid arguments, the study of inference, including fallacies, and the study of semantics, including paradoxes
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Dialog
Dialog is an online information service owned by ProQuest, who acquired it from Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters
in mid-2008.[1][2] Dialog was one of the predecessors of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
as a provider of information, though not in form.[3][4] The earliest form of the Dialog system was completed in 1966 under the direction of Roger K. Summit.[5] According to its literature,[6] it was "the world's first online information retrieval system to be used globally with materially significant databases"
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Rhetoric
Rhetoric
Rhetoric
is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. It can also be in a visual form; as a subject of formal study and a productive civic practice, rhetoric has played a central role in the European tradition.[1] Its best known definition comes from Aristotle, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion."[2] Rhetoric
Rhetoric
typically provides heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals, logos, pathos, and ethos. The five canons of rhetoric, which trace the traditional tasks in designing a persuasive speech, were first codified in classical Rome: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery
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Persuasive
Lua error in Module:Navbar at line 66: Tried to write global div.Persuasion, novel by Jane Austen. Illustrated by C. E. Brock
C. E. Brock
for Sir Walter Elliot, baronet, the hints of Mr Shepherd, his agent, were quite unwelcome Persuasion
Persuasion
is an umbrella term of influence. Persuasion
Persuasion
can attempt to influence a person's beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations, or behaviors.[1] In business, persuasion is a process aimed at changing a person's (or a group's) attitude or behavior toward some event, idea, object, or other person(s), by using written, spoken words or visual tools to convey information, feelings, or reasoning, or a combination thereof.[2] Persuasion
Persuasion
is also an often used tool in the pursuit of personal gain, such as election campaigning, giving a sales pitch,[3] or in trial advocacy
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Perlocutionary Act
A perlocutionary act (or perlocutionary effect) is a speech act, as viewed at the level of its consequences, such as persuading, convincing, scaring, enlightening, inspiring, or otherwise affecting the listener.[clarification needed] This is contrasted with locutionary and illocutionary acts (which are levels of description, rather than classifications of speech acts).[1] Unlike the notion of illocutionary act, which describes the linguistic function of an utterance,[clarification needed] a perlocutionary effect is in some sense external to the performance. It may be thought of, in a sense, as the effect of the illocutionary act via the locutionary act
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Speech Act
A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication. According to Kent Bach, "almost any speech act is really the performance of several acts at once, distinguished by different aspects of the speaker's intention: there is the act of saying something, what one does in saying it, such as requesting or promising, and how one is trying to affect one's audience". The contemporary use of the term goes back to J. L. Austin's development of performative utterances and his theory of locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts
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Mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics
(from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity,[1] structure,[2] space,[1] and change.[3][4][5] It has no generally accepted definition.[6][7] Mathematicians seek out patterns[8][9] and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist
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Axioms
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek axíōma (ἀξίωμα) 'that which is thought worthy or fit' or 'that which commends itself as evident.'[1][2] The term has subtle differences in definition when used in the context of different fields of study
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Theorem
In mathematics, a theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems, and generally accepted statements, such as axioms. A theorem is a logical consequence of the axioms. The proof of a mathematical theorem is a logical argument for the theorem statement given in accord with the rules of a deductive system. The proof of a theorem is often interpreted as justification of the truth of the theorem statement. In light of the requirement that theorems be proved, the concept of a theorem is fundamentally deductive, in contrast to the notion of a scientific law, which is experimental.[2] Many mathematical theorems are conditional statements. In this case, the proof deduces the conclusion from conditions called hypotheses or premises
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Rules Of Inference
In logic, a rule of inference, inference rule or transformation rule is a logical form consisting of a function which takes premises, analyzes their syntax, and returns a conclusion (or conclusions). For example, the rule of inference called modus ponens takes two premises, one in the form "If p then q" and another in the form "p", and returns the conclusion "q". The rule is valid with respect to the semantics of classical logic (as well as the semantics of many other non-classical logics), in the sense that if the premises are true (under an interpretation), then so is the conclusion. Typically, a rule of inference preserves truth, a semantic property. In many-valued logic, it preserves a general designation. But a rule of inference's action is purely syntactic, and does not need to preserve any semantic property: any function from sets of formulae to formulae counts as a rule of inference. Usually only rules that are recursive are important; i.e
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Existence Of God
The existence of God
God
is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.[1] A wide variety of arguments for and against the existence of God
God
can be categorized as metaphysical, logical, empirical, or subjective. In philosophical terms, the question of the existence of God
God
involves the disciplines of epistemology (the nature and scope of knowledge) and ontology (study of the nature of being, existence, or reality) and the theory of value (since some definitions of God
God
include "perfection"). The Western tradition of philosophical discussion of the existence of God
God
began with Plato
Plato
and Aristotle, who made arguments that would now be categorized as cosmological. Other arguments for the existence of God
God
have been proposed by St
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Proposition
The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy. It is used to refer to some or all of the following: the primary bearers of truth-value, the objects of belief and other "propositional attitudes" (i.e., what is believed, doubted, etc.), the referents of that-clauses, and the meanings of declarative sentences. Propositions are the sharable objects of attitudes and the primary bearers of truth and falsity
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Jurisprudence
Jurisprudence
Jurisprudence
or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists. Scholars of jurisprudence, also known as jurists or legal theorists, hope to obtain a deeper understanding of legal reasoning, legal systems, legal institutions, and the role of law in society. Modern jurisprudence began in the 18th century and was focused on the first principles of the natural law, civil law, and the law of nations.[1] General jurisprudence can be divided into categories both by the type of question scholars seek to answer and by the theories of jurisprudence, or schools of thought, regarding how those questions are best answered
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Philosophic Burden Of Proof
The burden of proof (Latin: onus probandi, shortened from Onus probandi incumbit ei qui dicit, non ei qui negat) is the obligation on a party in a dispute to provide sufficient warrant for their position.Contents1 Holder of the burden 2 Shifting the burden of proof 3 In public discourse 4 Proving a negative 5 Example 6 See also 7 ReferencesHolder of the burden[edit] When two parties are in a discussion and one makes a claim that the other disputes, the one who makes the claim typically has a burden of proof to justify or substantiate that claim especially when it challenges a perceived status quo.[1] This is also stated in Hitchens's razor. While certain kinds of arguments, such as logical syllogisms, require mathematical or strictly logical proofs, the standard for evidence to meet the burden of proof is usually determined by context and community standards and conventions.[2][3] Philosophical debate can devolve into arguing about who has the burden of proof about
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