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Processor Register
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Registers usually consist of a small amount of fast storage, although some registers have specific hardware functions, and may be read-only or write-only. Registers are typically addressed by mechanisms other than main memory, but may in some cases be assigned a memory address e.g. DEC PDP-10, ICT 1900. Almost all computers, whether load/store architecture or not, load data from a larger memory into registers where it is used for arithmetic operations and is manipulated or tested by machine instructions. Manipulated data is then often stored back to main memory, either by the same instruction or by a subsequent one
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Memory Type Range Registers
Memory type range registers (MTRRs) are a set of processor supplementary capabilities control registers that provide system software with control of how accesses to memory ranges by the CPU
CPU
are cached. It uses a set of programmable model-specific registers (MSRs) which are special registers provided by most modern CPUs. Possible access modes to memory ranges can be uncached, write-through, write-combining, write-protect, and write-back. In write-back mode, writes are written to the CPU's cache and the cache is marked dirty, so that its contents are written to memory later. Write-combining allows bus write transfers to be combined into a larger transfer before bursting them over the bus to allow more efficient writes to system resources like graphics card memory. This often increases the speed of image write operations by several times, at the cost of losing the simple sequential read/write semantics of normal memory
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Dynamic Random-access Memory
Dynamic random-access memory
Dynamic random-access memory
(DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit. The capacitor can either be charged or discharged; these two states are taken to represent the two values of a bit, conventionally called 0 and 1. The electric charge on the capacitors slowly leaks off, so without intervention the data on the chip would soon be lost. To prevent this, DRAM requires an external memory refresh circuit which periodically rewrites the data in the capacitors, restoring them to their original charge. Because of this refresh requirement, it is a dynamic memory as opposed to static random-access memory (SRAM) which does not require data to be refreshed. Unlike flash memory, DRAM is volatile memory (vs. non-volatile memory), since it loses its data quickly when power is removed
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AMD K5
The K5 is AMD's first x86 processor to be developed entirely in-house. Introduced in March 1996, its primary competition was Intel's Pentium microprocessor. The K5 was an ambitious design, closer to a Pentium Pro than a Pentium regarding technical solutions and internal architecture. However, the final product was closer to the Pentium regarding performance, although faster clock-for-clock compared to the Pentium.Contents1 Technical details 2 Performance 3 Models3.1 SSA/5 3.2 5k864 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksTechnical details[edit]K5 core diagramThe K5 was based upon an internal highly parallel 29k RISC
RISC
processor architecture with an x86 decoding front-end. The K5 offered good x86 compatibility and the in-house-developed test suite proved invaluable on later projects. All models had 4.3 million transistors, with five integer units that could process instructions out of order and one floating-point unit
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Nx586
NexGen
NexGen
(Milpitas, California) was a private semiconductor company that designed x86 microprocessors until it was purchased by AMD
AMD
in 1996.[1] NexGen
NexGen
was a fabless design house that designed its chips but relied on other companies for production. NexGen's chips were produced by IBM's Microelectronics division. The company was best known for the unique implementation of the x86 architecture in its processors
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Cyrix 6x86
The Cyrix
Cyrix
6x86 (codename M1) is a sixth-generation, 32-bit x86-compatible microprocessor designed by Cyrix
Cyrix
and manufactured by IBM and SGS-Thomson. It was originally released in 1996.Contents1 Architecture 2 Performance 3 Models3.1 6x86 3.2 6x86L 3.3 6x86MX / MII4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksArchitecture[edit]A simplistic block diagram of the Cyrix
Cyrix
6x86 microarchitecture.The 6x86 is superscalar and superpipelined and performs register renaming, speculative execution, out-of-order execution, and data dependency removal.[1] However, it continued to use native x86 execution and ordinary microcode only, like Centaur's Winchip, unlike competitors Intel
Intel
and AMD
AMD
which introduced the method of dynamic translation to micro-operations with Pentium Pro
Pentium Pro
and K5
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Pentium Pro
The Pentium
Pentium
Pro is a sixth-generation x86 microprocessor developed and manufactured by Intel
Intel
introduced in November 1, 1995.[1] It introduced the P6 microarchitecture (sometimes referred to as i686) and was originally intended to replace the original Pentium
Pentium
in a full range of applications. While the Pentium
Pentium
and Pentium
Pentium
MMX had 3.1 and 4.5 million transistors, respectively, the Pentium
Pentium
Pro contained 5.5 million transistors.[2] Later, it was reduced to a more narrow role as a server and high-end desktop processor and was used in supercomputers like ASCI Red, the first computer to reach the teraFLOPS performance mark.[3] The Pentium
Pentium
Pro was capable of both dual- and quad-processor configurations. It only came in one form factor, the relatively large rectangular Socket 8
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Character (computing)
In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.[1] Examples of characters include letters, numerical digits, common punctuation marks (such as "." or "-"), and whitespace. The concept also includes control characters, which do not correspond to symbols in a particular natural language, but rather to other bits of information used to process text in one or more languages
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Bit Array
A bit array (also known as bit map , bit set, bit string, or bit vector) is an array data structure that compactly stores bits. It can be used to implement a simple set data structure. A bit array is effective at exploiting bit-level parallelism in hardware to perform operations quickly. A typical bit array stores kw bits, where w is the number of bits in the unit of storage, such as a byte or word, and k is some nonnegative integer. If w does not divide the number of bits to be stored, some space is wasted due to internal fragmentation.Contents1 Definition 2 Basic operations 3 More complex operations3.1 Population / Hamming weight 3.2 Inversion 3.3 Find first one4 Compression 5 Advantages and disadvantages 6 Applications 7 Language support 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksDefinition[edit] A bit array is a mapping from some domain (almost always a range of integers) to values in the set 0, 1
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Compiler
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language). Compilers
Compilers
are a type of translator that support digital devices, primarily computers. The name compiler is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly language, object code, or machine code) to create an executable program.[1] However, there are many different types of compilers. If the compiled program can run on a computer whose CPU or operating system is different from the one on which the compiler runs, the compiler is a cross-compiler. A bootstrap compiler is written in the language that it intends to compile. A program that translates from a low-level language to a higher level one is a decompiler
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Stack (data Structure)
In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations:push, which adds an element to the collection, and pop, which removes the most recently added element that was not yet removed.The order in which elements come off a stack gives rise to its alternative name, LIFO (last in, first out). Additionally, a peek operation may give access to the top without modifying the stack.[1] The name "stack" for this type of structure comes from the analogy to a set of physical items stacked on top of each other, which makes it easy to take an item off the top of the stack, while getting to an item deeper in the stack may require taking off multiple other items first.[2] Considered as a linear data structure, or more abstractly a sequential collection, the push and pop operations occur only at one end of the structure, referred to as the top of the stack
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Static Random-access Memory
Static random-access memory
Static random-access memory
(static RAM
RAM
or SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry (flip-flop) to store each bit. S RAM
RAM
exhibits data remanence,[1] but it is still volatile in the conventional sense that data is eventually lost when the memory is not powered. The term static differentiates S RAM
RAM
from DRAM
DRAM
(dynamic random-access memory) which must be periodically refreshed
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Status Register
A status register, flag register, or condition code register is a collection of status flag bits for a processor. An example is the FLAGS register of the x86 architecture or flags in a program status word (PSW) register. The status register is a hardware register that contains information about the state of the processor. Individual bits are implicitly or explicitly read and/or written by the machine code instructions executing on the processor. The status register lets an instruction take action contingent on the outcome of a previous instruction. Typically, flags in the status register are modified as effects of arithmetic and bit manipulation operations. For example, a Z bit may be set if the result of the operation is zero and cleared if it is nonzero. Other classes of instructions may also modify the flags to indicate status
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Truth Value
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.[1]Contents1 Classical logic 2 Intuitionistic and constructive logic 3 Multi-valued logic 4 Algebraic semantics 5 In other theories 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksClassical logic[edit] ⊤ true  ·∧· conjunction¬↕↕ ⊥ false·∨· disjunction Negation interchanges true with false and conjunction with disjunctionIn classical logic, with its intended semantics, the truth values are true (1 or T), and untrue or false (0 or ⊥); that is, classical logic is a two-valued logic. This set of two values is also called the Boolean domain
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Floating Point Number
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision. For this reason, floating-point computation is often found in systems which include very small and very large real numbers, which require fast processing times. A number is, in general, represented approximately to a fixed number of significant digits (the significand) and scaled using an exponent in some fixed base; the base for the scaling is normally two, ten, or sixteen. A number that can be represented exactly is of the following form: significand × base exponent , displaystyle text significand times text base ^ text exponent , where significand is an integer (i.e., in Z), base is an integer greater than or equal to two, and exponent is also an integer
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DEC PDP-10
The PDP-10
PDP-10
is a mainframe computer family[1] manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966[2] into the 1980s. Later models were marketed under the DECsystem-10 name, especially when the TOPS-10 operating system became widely used. The PDP-10
PDP-10
architecture is almost identical to the earlier PDP-6 architecture, sharing the same 36-bit word length and slightly extending the instruction set (but with improved hardware implementation)
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