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Procedural Programming
PROCEDURAL PROGRAMMING is a programming paradigm , derived from structured programming , based upon the concept of the procedure call. Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines , or functions (not to be confused with mathematical functions, but similar to those used in functional programming ), simply contain a series of computational steps to be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a program's execution, including by other procedures or itself. The first major procedural programming languages first appeared circa 1960, including Fortran , ALGOL , COBOL
COBOL
and BASIC
BASIC
. Pascal and C were published closer to the 1970s, while Ada was released in 1980. Go is an example of a more modern procedural language, first published in 2009
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Procedural Generation
In computing , PROCEDURAL GENERATION is a method of creating data algorithmically as opposed to manually. In computer graphics , it is also called RANDOM GENERATION and is commonly used to create textures and 3D models . In video games, it is used to automatically create large amounts of content in a game. Advantages of procedural generation include smaller file sizes, larger amounts of content, and randomness for less predictable gameplay. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Contemporary application * 2.1 Video games * 2.1.1 Early history * 2.1.2 Modern use * 2.2 Film * 3 Games which use procedural generation * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links OVERVIEWThe term procedural refers to the process that computes a particular function. Fractals are geometric patterns which can often be generated procedurally. Commonplace procedural content includes textures and meshes
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Spreadsheet
A SPREADSHEET is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form. Spreadsheets are developed as computerized simulations of paper accounting worksheets . The program operates on data entered in cells of a table. Each cell may contain either numeric or text data, or the results of formulas that automatically calculate and display a value based on the contents of other cells. A spreadsheet may also refer to one such electronic document. Spreadsheet
Spreadsheet
users can adjust any stored value and observe the effects on calculated values. This makes the spreadsheet useful for "what-if" analysis since many cases can be rapidly investigated without manual recalculation. Modern spreadsheet software can have multiple interacting sheets, and can display data either as text and numerals, or in graphical form
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Service-oriented Architecture
A SERVICE-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE (SOA) is a style of software design where services are provided to the other components by application components , through a communication protocol over a network. The basic principles of service-oriented architecture are independent of vendors, products and technologies. A service is a discrete unit of functionality that can be accessed remotely and acted upon and updated independently, such as retrieving a credit card statement online. A service has four properties according to one of many definitions of SOA: * It logically represents a business activity with a specified outcome. * It is self-contained. * It is a black box for its consumers. * It may consist of other underlying services. Different services can be used in conjunction to provide the functionality of a large software application
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Literate Programming
LITERATE PROGRAMMING is a programming paradigm introduced by Donald Knuth in which a program is given as an explanation of the program logic in a natural language, such as English, interspersed with snippets of macros and traditional source code, from which a compilable source code can be generated. The literate programming paradigm , as conceived by Knuth, represents a move away from writing programs in the manner and order imposed by the computer, and instead enables programmers to develop programs in the order demanded by the logic and flow of their thoughts
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Natural Language Programming
NATURAL LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING (NLP) is an ontology -assisted way of programming in terms of natural language sentences, e.g. English . A structured document with Content, sections and subsections for explanations of sentences forms a NLP document, which is actually a computer program . Natural languages and natural language user interfaces include Inform7 , a natural programming language for making interactive fiction, Ring , a general purpose language, Shakespeare , an esoteric natural programming language in the style of the plays of William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
, and Wolfram Alpha , a computational knowledge engine, using natural language input
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Concurrent Constraint Logic Programming
CONCURRENT CONSTRAINT LOGIC PROGRAMMING is a version of constraint logic programming aimed primarily at programming concurrent processes rather than (or in addition to) solving constraint satisfaction problems . Goals in constraint logic programming are evaluated concurrently; a concurrent process is therefore programmed as the evaluation of a goal by the interpreter . Syntactically, concurrent constraints logic programs are similar to non-concurrent programs, the only exception being that clauses include guards , which are constraints that may block the applicability of the clause under some conditions. Semantically, concurrent constraint logic programming differs from its non-concurrent versions because a goal evaluation is intended to realize a concurrent process rather than finding a solution to a problem
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Concurrent Logic Programming
CONCURRENT LOGIC PROGRAMMING is a variant of logic programming in which programs are sets of guarded Horn clauses of the form: H :- G1, …, Gn B1, …, Bn. The conjunction G1, … , Gn is called the guard of the clause, and is the commitment operator. Declaratively, guarded Horn clauses are read as ordinary logical implications: H if G1 and … and Gn and B1 and … and Bn. However, procedurally, when there are several clauses whose heads H match a given goal, then all of the clauses are executed in parallel, checking whether their guards G1, … , Gn hold. If the guards of more than one clause hold, then a committed choice is made to one of the clauses, and execution proceedes with the subgoals B1, …, Bn of the chosen clause. These subgoals can also be executed in parallel. Thus concurrent logic programming implements a form of "don't care nondeterminism", rather than "don't know nondeterminism"
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Concept Programming
CONCEPT PROGRAMMING is a programming paradigm focusing on how concepts, that live in the programmer's mind, translate into representations that are found in the code space. This approach was introduced in 2001 by Christophe de Dinechin with the XL Programming Language . CONTENTS * 1 Pseudo-metrics * 2 Rule of equivalence, equivalence breakdown * 3 Methodology * 4 Languages * 5 Similar works * 6 See also * 7 External links PSEUDO-METRICS Concept programming uses pseudo-metrics to evaluate the quality of code. They are called pseudo-metrics because they relate the concept space and the code space, with a clear understanding that the concept space cannot be formalized strictly enough for a real metric to be defined. Concept programming pseudo-metrics include: * Syntactic noise measures discrepancies between the concept and the syntax used to represent it
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Function-level Programming
In computer science, FUNCTION-LEVEL programming refers to one of the two contrasting programming paradigms identified by John Backus in his work on programs as mathematical objects , the other being value-level programming . In his 1977 Turing award lecture, Backus set forth what he considered to be the need to switch to a different philosophy in programming language design: Programming languages appear to be in trouble. Each successive language incorporates, with a little cleaning up, all the features of its predecessors plus a few more. Each new language claims new and fashionable features... but the plain fact is that few languages make programming sufficiently cheaper or more reliable to justify the cost of producing and learning to use them. He designed FP to be the first programming language to specifically support the function-level programming style. A function-level program is VARIABLE-FREE (cf
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Generic Programming
GENERIC PROGRAMMING is a style of computer programming in which algorithms are written in terms of types to-be-specified-later that are then instantiated when needed for specific types provided as parameters . This approach, pioneered by ML in 1973, permits writing common functions or types that differ only in the set of types on which they operate when used, thus reducing duplication . Such software entities are known as generics in Ada , C# , Delphi , Eiffel , F# , Java , Objective-C , Rust , Swift , and Visual Basic .NET . They are known as parametric polymorphism in ML , Scala , Haskell (the Haskell community also uses the term "generic" for a related but somewhat different concept) and Julia ; templates in C++
C++
and D ; and parameterized types in the influential 1994 book Design Patterns
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Feature-oriented Programming
FEATURE ORIENTED PROGRAMMING (FOP) or FEATURE ORIENTED SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT (FOSD) is a paradigm for program generation in software product lines and for incremental development of programs. Connection Between Layer Stacks and Transformation Compositions FOSD arose out of layer-based designs and levels of abstraction in network protocols and extensible database systems in the late-1980s. A program was a stack of layers. Each layer added functionality to previously composed layers and different compositions of layers produced different programs. Not surprisingly, there was a need for a compact language to express such designs. Elementary algebra fit the bill: each layer was a function (a program transformation ) that added new code to an existing program to produce a new program, and a program's design was modeled by an expression, i.e., a composition of transformations (layers)
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Expression-oriented Programming Language
An EXPRESSION-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE is a programming language where every (or nearly every) construction is an expression and thus yields a value. The typical exceptions are macro definitions, preprocessor commands, and declarations, which expression-oriented languages often treat as statements rather than expressions. Some expression-oriented languages introduce a void return type to be yielded by expressions that merely cause side-effects . ALGOL 68 and Lisp are examples of expression-oriented languages. Pascal is not an expression-oriented language. All functional programming languages are expression-oriented. CONTENTS * 1 Criticism * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References CRITICISMCritics, including language designers, blame expression-orientation for an entire class of programming mistakes wherein a programmer introduces an assignment expression where they meant to test for equality
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Dynamic Programming Language
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE, in computer science , is a class of high-level programming languages which, at runtime , execute many common programming behaviors that static programming languages perform during compilation . These behaviors could include extension of the program, by adding new code , by extending objects and definitions, or by modifying the type system . Although similar behaviours can be emulated in nearly any language, with varying degrees of difficulty, complexity and performance costs, dynamic languages provide direct tools to make use of them. Many of these features were first implemented as native features in the Lisp programming language. Most dynamic languages are also dynamically typed , but not all are. Dynamic languages are frequently (but not always) referred to as "scripting languages ", although the term "scripting language" in its narrowest sense refers to languages specific to a given run-time environment
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Agent-oriented Programming
AGENT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING (AOP) is a programming paradigm where the construction of the software is centered on the concept of software agents . In contrast to object-oriented programming which has objects (providing methods with variable parameters) at its core, AOP has externally specified agents (with interfaces and messaging capabilities) at its core. They can be thought of as abstractions of objects. Exchanged messages are interpreted by receiving "agents", in a way specific to its class of agents
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