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Probation
Probation
Probation
in criminal law is a period of supervision over an offender, ordered by the court instead of serving time in prison. In some jurisdictions, the term probation applies only to community sentences (alternatives to incarceration), such as suspended sentences.[1] In others, probation also includes supervision of those conditionally released from prison on parole.[2] An offender on probation is ordered to follow certain conditions set forth by the court, often under the supervision of a probation officer
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Domestic Violence
Domestic violence
Domestic violence
(also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation. It may be termed intimate partner violence when committed by a spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner, and can take place in heterosexual or same-sex relationships, or between former spouses or partners. Domestic violence
Domestic violence
can also involve violence against children, parents, or the elderly, and may be done for self-defense
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Courts Of Scotland
The courts of Scotland
Scotland
are responsible for administration of justice in Scotland, under statutory, common law and equitable provisions within Scots law
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Imprisonment
Imprisonment (from imprison Old French, French emprisonner, from en in + prison prison, from Latin prensio, arrest, from prehendere, prendere, to seize) is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority. In the latter case it is "false imprisonment". Imprisonment does not necessarily imply a place of confinement, with bolts and bars, but may be exercised by any use or display of force, lawfully or unlawfully, wherever displayed, even in the open street
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Sexually Violent Predator Legislation
In some jurisdictions may commit certain types of dangerous sex offenders to state-run detention facilities following the completion of their sentence if that person has a "mental abnormality" or personality disorder that makes the person likely to engage in sexual offenses if not confined in a secure facility.[1][2] In the United States, twenty states, the federal government, and the District of Columbia have a version of these commitment laws, which are referred to as "Sexually Violent Predator" (SVP) or "Sexually Dangerous Persons" laws.[2] Generally speaking, SVP laws have three elements:[3] (1) That the person has been convicted of a sexually violent offense (a term that is defined applicable statutes) (2) That the person suffers from a mental abnormality and/or personality disorder, which causes him/her serious difficulty controlling his/her sexually violent behavior
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Evidence (law)
The law of evidence, also known as the rules of evidence, encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding. These rules determine what evidence must or must not be considered by the trier of fact in reaching its decision. The trier of fact is a judge in bench trials, or the jury in any cases involving a jury.[1] The law of evidence is also concerned with the quantum (amount), quality, and type of proof needed to prevail in litigation. The rules vary depending upon whether the venue is a criminal court, civil court, or family court, and they vary by jurisdiction. The quantum of evidence is the amount of evidence needed; the quality of proof is how reliable such evidence should be considered. Important rules that govern admissibility concern hearsay, authentication, relevance, privilege, witnesses, opinions, expert testimony, identification and rules of physical evidence
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Courts Of The United States
The courts of the United States are closely linked hierarchical systems of courts at the federal and state levels. The federal courts form the judicial branch of the federal government of the United States and operate under the authority of the United States Constitution and federal law. The state and territorial courts of the individual U.S. states and territories operate under the authority of the state and territorial constitutions and state and territorial law. Federal statutes that refer to the "courts of the United States" are referring only to the courts of the federal government, and not the courts of the individual states and counties. Because of the federalist underpinnings of the division between sovereign federal and state governments, the various state court systems are free to operate in ways that vary widely from those of the federal government, and from one another
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Courts Of England And Wales
The Judiciary of England and Wales
England and Wales
within Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service[1] are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
does not have a single unified legal system— England and Wales
England and Wales
has one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. There are exceptions to this rule; for example in immigration law, the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal's jurisdiction covers the whole of the United Kingdom, while in employment law there is a single system of employment tribunals for England, Wales, and Scotland but not Northern Ireland
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Civil Procedure
Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters)
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Courts Of Canada
Provincial and territorial executive councilsPremiersLegislative (Queen-in-Parliament) Federal parliamentSenateSpeaker of the Senate Government Leader in the Senate Opposition Leader in the Senate Senate divisionsHouse of CommonsSpeaker of the house Government Leader in the house Opposition Leader in the house Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition Leader of the Opposition Shadow cabinetProvincial and territorial parliamentsJudicial (Queen-on-the-Bench) Court
Court
systemSupreme courtFederal chief justice (Richard Wagner)Pr
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Courts Of The United Kingdom
The Courts of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are separated into three separate jurisdictions, the Courts of England
England
and Wales,
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Offence (law)
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.[1] The term "crime" does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,[2] though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes.[3] The most popular view is that crime is a category created by law; in other words, something is a crime if declared as such by the relevant and applicable law.[2] One proposed definition is that a crime or offence (or criminal offence) is an act harmful not only to some individual but also to a community, society or the state ("a public wrong"). Such acts are forbidden and punishable by law.[1][4] The notion that acts such as murder, rape and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide.[5] What precisely is a criminal offence is defined by criminal law of each country
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Curfew
A curfew is an order specifying a time during which certain regulations apply.[1][2]Contents1 Etymology 2 Types 3 By country3.1 Egypt 3.2 Iceland 3.3 Sri Lanka 3.4 United Kingdom 3.5 United States
United States
of America3.5.1 Juvenile curfews 3.5.2 Mall curfews 3.5.3 Curfews for all4 See also 5 Notes 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The word "curfew" comes from the French phrase "couvre-feu", which means "fire cover"
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Speedy Trial
The right to a speedy trial is a human right under which it is asserted that a government prosecutor may not delay the trial of a criminal suspect arbitrarily and indefinitely. Otherwise, the power to impose such delays would effectively allow prosecutors to send anyone to jail for an arbitrary length of time without trial. Although it is important for the protection of speedy trial rights that there be a court in which a defendant may complain about the unreasonable delay of the trial, it is also important that nations implement structures that avoid the delay.[1]Contents1 Recognition of speedy trial rights1.1 Canada 1.2 Europe 1.3 Philippines 1.4 United States2 See also 3 ReferencesRecognition of speedy trial rights[edit] In jurisdictions with strong rule of law, the requirement of a "speedy trial" forces prosecutors to diligently build cases within a reasonable amount of time commensurate with the complexity and heinousness of the crimes of which suspects are accused
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Right To A Fair Trial
A trial which is observed by trial judge or by jury without being partial is called a fair trial. Various rights associated with a fair trial are explicitly proclaimed in Article 10 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights, as well as numerous other constitutions and declarations throughout the world
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Criminal Procedure
Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law. While criminal procedure differs dramatically by jurisdiction, the process generally begins with a formal criminal charge, and results in the conviction or acquittal of the defendant. Criminal procedure can be either in form of inquisitorial or adversarial criminal procedure.Contents1 Basic rights 2 Difference in criminal and civil procedures 3 Differences between civil law and common law systems 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingBasic rights[edit] Currently, in many countries with a democratic system and the rule of law, criminal procedure puts the burden of proof on the prosecution – that is, it is up to the prosecution to prove that the defendant is guilty beyond any reasonable doubt, as opposed to having the defense prove that s/he is innocent, and any doubt is resolved in favor of the defendant
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