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Probability
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Probability
Probability
is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.[1] See glossary of probability and statistics. Probability
Probability
is quantified as a number between 0 and 1, where, loosely speaking,[2] 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty.[3][4] The higher the probability of an event, the more likely it is that the event will occur
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Objectivity (philosophy)
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth, which has been variously defined by sources. Generally, objectivity means the state or quality of being true even outside a subject's individual biases, interpretations, feelings, and imaginings. A proposition is generally considered objectively true (to have objective truth) when its truth conditions are met without biases caused by feelings, ideas, opinions, etc., of a sentient subject. A second, broader meaning of the term refers to the ability in any context to judge fairly, without partiality or external influence. This second meaning of objectivity is sometimes used synonymously with neutrality.Contents1 Objectivity of knowledge 2 Objectivity in ethics2.1 Ethical subjectivism 2.2 Ethical objectivism3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksObjectivity of knowledge[edit]This section possibly contains original research
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Well-defined
In mathematics, an expression is called well-defined or unambiguous if its definition assigns it a unique interpretation or value. Otherwise, the expression is said to be not well-defined or ambiguous.[1] A function is well-defined if it gives the same result when the representation of the input is changed without changing the value of the input. For instance if f takes real numbers as input, and if f(0.5) does not equal f(1/2) then f is not well-defined (and thus: not a function).[2] The term well-defined is also used to indicate whether a logical statement is unambiguous. A function that is not well-defined is not the same as a function that is undefined. For example, if f(x) = 1/x, then f(0) is undefined, but this has nothing to do with the question of whether f(x) = 1/x is well-defined
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Complex Systems
Collective intelligence Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality Phase transition Agent-based modelling Synchronization Ant
Ant
colony optimization Particle swarm optimization Swarm behaviourNetworks Scale-free networks Social network analysis Small-world networks Community
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Philosophy
Philosophy
Philosophy
(from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom"[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE)
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Finance
Finance
Finance
is a field that deals with the study of investments. It includes the dynamics of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of different degrees of uncertainties and risks. Finance can also be defined as the science of money management. Market participants aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, and their expected rate of return
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Gambling
Gambling
Gambling
is the wagering of money or something of value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning money or material goods. Gambling
Gambling
thus requires three elements be present: consideration, chance and prize.[1] The outcome of the wager is often immediate, such as a single roll of dice, a spin of a roulette wheel, or a horse crossing the finish line, but longer time frames are also common, allowing wagers on the outcome of a future sports contest or even an entire sports season. The term "gaming"[2] in this context typically refers to instances in which the activity has been specifically permitted by law. The two words are not mutually exclusive; i.e., a "gaming" company offers (legal) "gambling" activities to the public[3] and may be regulated by one of many gaming control boards, for example, the Nevada Gaming Control Board
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Science
Science
Science
(from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge")[2][3]:58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[a] Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences which study the material world, the social sciences which study people and societies, and the formal sciences like mathematics
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Hypothesis
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eA hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.[1] A different meaning of the term hypothesis is used in formal logic, to denote the antecedent of a proposition; thus in the proposition "If P, then Q", P denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); Q can be called a consequent
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Areas Of Study
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education. A scholar's discipline is commonly defined by the university faculties and learned societies to which he or she belongs and the academic journals in which he or she publishes research. Disciplines vary between well-established ones that exist in almost all universities and have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences and nascent ones supported by only a few universities and publications
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Physics
Physics
Physics
(from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), translit. physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis "nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural science that studies matter[4] and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force.[5] Physics
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Presupposition (philosophy)
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eIn epistemology, a presupposition relates to a belief system, or Weltanschauung, that is required for the argument to make sense. A variety of Christian
Christian
apologetics, called presuppositional apologetics, argues that the existence or non-existence of God
God
is the basic presupposition of all human thought, and that all people arrive at a worldview which is ultimately determined by the theology they presuppose. Evidence and arguments are only developed after the fact in an attempt to justify the theological assumptions already made. According to this view, it is impossible to demonstrate the existence of God
God
unless one presupposes that God
God
exists, with the stance that modern science relies on methodological naturalism, a myth, and thus is incapable of discovering the supernatural
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Solipsism
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Solipsism
Solipsism
(/ˈsɒlɪpsɪzəm/ ( listen); from Latin solus, meaning 'alone', and ipse, meaning 'self')[1] is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist. As an epistemological position, solipsism holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure; the external world and other minds cannot be known and might not exist outside the mind
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Skepticism
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.[1][2] It is often directed at domains, such as the supernatural, morality (moral skepticism), religion (skepticism about the existence of God), or knowledge (skepticism about the possibility of knowledge, or of certainty).[3] Formally, skepticism as a topic occurs in the context of philosophy, particularly epistemology, although it can be applied to any topic such as politics, religion, and pseudoscience. Philosophical skepticism
Philosophical skepticism
comes in various forms. Radical forms of skepticism deny that knowledge or rational belief is possible and urge us to suspend judgment on many or all controversial matters
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Agnosticism
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Agnosticism
Agnosticism
is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.[1][2][3] According to the philosopher William L. Rowe, "agnosticism is the view that human reason is incapable of providing sufficient rational grounds to justify either the belief that God
God
exists or the belief that God
God
does not exist".[2] Agnosticism
Agnosticism
is the doctrine or tenet of agnostics with regard to the existence of anything beyond and behind material phenomena or to knowledge of a First Cause or God,[4] and is not a religion. English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
coined the word "agnostic" in 1869
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Nihilism
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Nihilism
Nihilism
(/ˈnaɪ(h)ɪlɪzəm, ˈniː-/; from Latin nihil, meaning 'nothing') is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life
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