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Private Branch Exchange
A BUSINESS TELEPHONE SYSTEM is a multiline telephone system typically used in business environments, encompassing systems ranging from small key telephone systems to large-scale private branch exchanges. A business telephone system differs from an installation of several telephones with multiple central office (CO) lines in that the CO lines used are directly controllable in key telephone systems from multiple telephone stations, and that such a system often provides additional features related to call handling. Business telephone systems are often broadly classified into key telephone systems, and private branch exchanges, but many hybrid systems exist
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Hoot-n-holler
HOOT-N-HOLLER (also known as a SQUAWK BOX system, holler down/shout down circuit and junkyard circuit) is a type of telecommunications system where there is a permanent open circuit between two or more parties. Anyone can speak at any time over a distance without having to pick up a phone or press a button. It is used in, amongst other places, stockbrokerage and warehouse intercom type applications. Hoot-n-holler capability provides a critical and tightly targeted channel of communication that can support thousands of users around the globe and is an integral part of voice trading systems. Modern hoot-n-holler systems are sometimes based on IP Multicast . Using IP means old analogue dedicated circuits can be removed, eliminating their associated cost. SEE ALSO * Trading turret REFERENCES * ^ Speakerbus, a IP hoot-n-holler providerSalvage Audio Exchange, IP Hoot-n-holler provider
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Avaya
Jim Chirico (CEO) Dave Vellequette (CFO) PRODUCTS Network equipment for businesses REVENUE $4.371 billion (FY 2014) OPERATING INCOME $197 million (FY 2014) NET INCOME $ 298 million (FY 2014) TOTAL ASSETS $7.234 billion (FY 2014) OWNER * TPG Capital * Silver Lake Partners NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 11,701 (Sep 2015) WEBSITE avaya.com Avaya
Avaya
office AVAYA (/əˈvaɪ.ə/ ) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California which specializes in Internet telephony , wireless data communications and customer relationship management (CRM) software. It serves organizations at over one million customer locations worldwide, with operations divided globally into five regions, and is number 101 on Forbes' list of America's largest private companies
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Trading Turret
A TRADING TURRET or DEALER BOARD is a specialized telephony key system that is generally used by financial traders on their trading desks . Trading has progressed from floor trading through phone trading to electronic trading during the later half of the twentieth century with phone trading having dominated during the 1980s and 1990s. Although most trading volume is now done via electronic trading platforms , some phone trading persists and trading turrets are common on trading desks of investment banks . CONTENTS * 1 Voice trading turrets * 2 Existing systems * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links VOICE TRADING TURRETSTrading turrets, unlike typical phone systems, have a number of features, functions and capabilities specifically designed for the needs of financial traders
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Conference Calling
A CONFERENCE CALL is a telephone call in which someone talks to several people at the same time. The conference calls may be designed to allow the called party to participate during the call, or the call may be set up so that the called party merely listens into the call and cannot speak. It is sometimes called ATC (audio tele-conference). Conference calls can be designed so that the calling party calls the other participants and adds them to the call; however, participants are usually able to call into the conference call themselves by dialing a telephone number that connects to a "conference bridge" (a specialized type of equipment that links telephone lines). Companies commonly use a specialized service provider who maintains the conference bridge, or who provides the phone numbers and PIN codes that participants dial to access the meeting or conference call
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Signalling System No. 7
SIGNALING SYSTEM NO. 7 (SS7) is a set of telephony signaling protocols developed in 1975, which is used to set up and tear down most of the world's public switched telephone network (PSTN) telephone calls. It also performs number translation, local number portability , prepaid billing, Short Message Service (SMS), and other mass market services. In North America it is often referred to as CCSS7, abbreviated for Common Channel Signaling System 7. In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, it is called C7 (CCITT number 7), number 7 and CCIS7 (Common Channel Interoffice Signaling 7). In Germany, it is often called ZZK-7 (Zentraler ZeichengabeKanal Nummer 7). The only international SS7 protocol is defined by ITU-T 's Q.700-series recommendations in 1988. Of the many national variants of the SS7 protocols, most are based on variants of the international protocol as standardized by ANSI and ETSI
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Circuit Switched
CIRCUIT SWITCHING is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit ) through the network before the nodes may communicate. The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of the channel and remains connected for the duration of the communication session . The circuit functions as if the nodes were physically connected as with an electrical circuit. The defining example of a circuit-switched network is the early analog telephone network . When a call is made from one telephone to another, switches within the telephone exchanges create a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones, for as long as the call lasts. Circuit switching contrasts with packet switching , which divides the data to be transmitted into packets transmitted through the network independently
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Internet Protocol
The INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite
Internet protocol suite
for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking , and essentially establishes the Internet
Internet
. IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers . For this purpose, IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information. Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf
Vint Cerf
and Bob Kahn in 1974; the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
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Western Electric
WESTERN ELECTRIC COMPANY (WE, WECO) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT"> 1969 Western Electric
Western Electric
medallion celebrating the 100-year anniversary of its founding Western Electric
Western Electric
was the first company to join in a Japanese joint venture with foreign capital. In 1899, it invested in a 54% share of the Nippon Electric Company, Ltd. Western Electric's representative in Japan was Walter Tenney Carleton . In 1901, Western Electric
Western Electric
secretly purchased a controlling interest in a principal competitor, the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company , but was later forced by a lawsuit to sell. On July 24, 1915, employees of the Hawthorne Works
Hawthorne Works
boarded the SS Eastland in downtown Chicago
Chicago
for a company picnic
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Microcontroller
A MICROCONTROLLER (or MCU for microcontroller unit ) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit . In modern terminology, it is a system on a chip or SoC. A microcontroller contains one or more CPUs (processor cores) along with memory and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of Ferroelectric RAM , NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a small amount of RAM
RAM
. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications consisting of various discrete chips. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems
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Core Competence
A CORE COMPETENCY is a concept in management theory introduced by C. K. Prahalad and Gary Hamel . It can be defined as "a harmonized combination of multiple resources and skills that distinguish a firm in the marketplace" and therefore are the foundation of companies' competitiveness. Core competencies fulfill three criteria: * Provides potential access to a wide variety of markets. * Should make a significant contribution to the perceived customer benefits of the end product. * Difficult to imitate by competitors.For example, a company's core competencies may include precision mechanics, fine optics, and micro-electronics. These help it build cameras, but may also be useful in making other products that require these competencies
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Microcomputer
A MICROCOMPUTER is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU). It includes a microprocessor, memory, and minimal input/output (I/O) circuitry mounted on a single printed circuit board . Microcomputers became popular in the 1970s and 1980s with the advent of increasingly powerful microprocessors. The predecessors to these computers, mainframes and minicomputers , were comparatively much larger and more expensive (though indeed present-day mainframes such as the IBM System z machines use one or more custom microprocessors as their CPUs). Many microcomputers (when equipped with a keyboard and screen for input and output) are also personal computers (in the generic sense). The abbreviation micro was common during the 1970s and 1980s, but has now fallen out of common usage
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Uninterruptible Power Supply
An UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY, also UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SOURCE, UPS or BATTERY/FLYWHEEL BACKUP, is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or mains power fails. A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions, by supplying energy stored in batteries, supercapacitors , or flywheels . The on-battery runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short (only a few minutes) but sufficient to start a standby power source or properly shut down the protected equipment. A UPS is typically used to protect hardware such as computers , data centers , telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss
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IP PBX
A PBX ( Private Branch Exchange
Private Branch Exchange
) is a system that connects telephone extensions to the Public Switched Telephone Network and provides internal communication for a business. An IP PBX is a PBX with Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
connectivity and may provide additional audio, video, or instant messaging communication utilizing the TCP/IP protocol stack. VoIP
VoIP
gateways can be combined with traditional PBX functionality to allow businesses to use their managed intranet to help reduce long distance expenses and take advantage of the benefits of a single network for voice and data (converged network ). An IP PBX may also provide CTI features. An IP PBX can exist as a physical hardware device or in software
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Battery (electricity)
An electric BATTERY is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights , smartphones , and electric cars . When a battery is supplying electric power , its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode . The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that when connected to an external circuit will flow and deliver energy to an external device. When a battery is connected to an external circuit, electrolytes are able to move as ions within, allowing the chemical reactions to be completed at the separate terminals and so deliver energy to the external circuit. It is the movement of those ions within the battery which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work. Historically the term "battery" specifically referred to a device composed of multiple cells, however the usage has evolved additionally to include devices composed of a single cell
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Packet Switching
PACKET SWITCHING is a method of grouping data transmitted over a digital network into packets which are composed of a header and a payload . Data in the header is used by networking hardware to direct the packet to its destination where the payload is extracted and used by application software .