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Private Branch Exchange
A business telephone system is a multiline telephone system typically used in business environments, encompassing systems ranging from small key telephone systems to large-scale private branch exchanges. A business telephone system differs from an installation of several telephones with multiple central office (CO) lines in that the CO lines used are directly controllable in key telephone systems from multiple telephone stations, and that such a system often provides additional features related to call handling
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Western Electric
Western Electric
Western Electric
Company (WE, WECo) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996. The company was responsible for many technological innovations and seminal developments in industrial management. It also served as the purchasing agent for the member companies of the Bell System.Contents1 History1.1 Company logos2 Development of a monopoly 3 Manufacturing
Manufacturing
plants 4 Technological innovations 5 Manufacturing
Manufacturing
innovations 6 Management innovations 7 NASA
NASA
and Project Mercury 8 Closure 9 Legacy 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksHistory[edit] In 1856, George Shawk purchased an electrical engineering business in Cleveland, Ohio. On December 31, 1869, he became partners with Enos M. Barton and, later the same year, sold his share to inventor Elisha Gray
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Microcomputer
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).[2] It includes a microprocessor, memory, and minimal input/output (I/O) circuitry mounted on a single printed circuit board.[3] Microcomputers became popular in the 1970s and 1980s with the advent of increasingly powerful microprocessors. The predecessors to these computers, mainframes and minicomputers, were comparatively much larger and more expensive (though indeed present-day mainframes such as the IBM System z machines use one or more custom microprocessors as their CPUs)
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Avaya
Avaya
Avaya
(/əˈvaɪ.ə/) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California
Santa Clara, California
that specializes in business communications, specifically unified communications, contact center, and services.[4][5] It serves organizations at 220,000 customer locations worldwide.[6]. The company originated as a unit of Lucent
Lucent
Technologies, which was spun off from AT&T in 1995. Avaya
Avaya
was then spun off as its own company in 2000. It remained a public company from 2000 to 2007, when it was purchased by private equity firms. Avaya
Avaya
filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in January 2017. It emerged from Chapter 11 on December 15, 2017
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Telephone
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals that are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduces the sound to the receiving user. In 1876, Scottish emigrant Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
was the first to be granted a United States patent for a device that produced clearly intelligible replication of the human voice. This instrument was further developed by many others. The telephone was the first device in history that enabled people to talk directly with each other across large distances
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Fax Machine
Fax
Fax
(short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device. The original document is scanned with a fax machine (or a telecopier), which processes the contents (text or images) as a single fixed graphic image, converting it into a bitmap, and then transmitting it through the telephone system in the form of audio-frequency tones. The receiving fax machine interprets the tones and reconstructs the image, printing a paper copy.[1] Early systems used direct conversions of image darkness to audio tone in a continuous or analog manner
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Packet Switching
Packet switching
Packet switching
is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload. Data in the header is used by networking hardware to direct the packet to its destination where the payload is extracted and used by application software
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Core Competence
A core competency is a concept in management theory introduced by C. K. Prahalad and Gary Hamel.[1] It can be defined as "a harmonized combination of multiple resources and skills that distinguish a firm in the marketplace" and therefore are the foundation of companies' competitiveness. [2] Core competencies fulfill three criteria:[1]Provides potential access to a wide variety of markets. Should make a significant contribution to the perceived customer benefits of the end product. Difficult to imitate by competitors.For example, a company's core competencies may include precision mechanics, fine optics, and micro-electronics
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Microcontroller
A microcontroller (or MCU for microcontroller unit) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit. In modern terminology, it is similar to, but less sophisticated than, a system on a chip or SoC; an SoC may include a microcontroller as one of its components. A microcontroller contains one or more CPUs (processor cores) along with memory and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of ferroelectric RAM, NOR flash
NOR flash
or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications consisting of various discrete chips. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems
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Uninterruptible Power Supply
An uninterruptible power supply, also uninterruptible power source, UPS or battery/flywheel backup, is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or mains power fails. A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions, by supplying energy stored in batteries, supercapacitors, or flywheels. The on-battery runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short (only a few minutes) but sufficient to start a standby power source or properly shut down the protected equipment. A UPS is typically used to protect hardware such as computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss
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Trading Turret
A trading turret or dealer board is a specialized telephony key system that is generally used by financial traders on their trading desks. Trading has progressed from floor trading through phone trading to electronic trading during the later half of the twentieth century with phone trading having dominated during the 1980s and 1990s. Although most trading volume is now done via electronic trading platforms, some phone trading persists and trading turrets are common on trading desks of investment banks.Contents1 Voice trading turrets 2 Existing systems 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksVoice trading turrets[edit] Trading turrets, unlike typical phone systems, have a number of features, functions and capabilities specifically designed for the needs of financial traders
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Battery (electricity)
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.[1] When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode.[2] The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that when connected to an external circuit will flow and deliver energy to an external device. When a battery is connected to an external circuit, electrolytes are able to move as ions within, allowing the chemical reactions to be completed at the separate terminals and so deliver energy to the external circuit
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IP PBX
A PBX (Private Branch Exchange) is a system that connects telephone extensions to the Public Switched Telephone Network and provides internal communication for a business. An IP PBX is a PBX with Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
connectivity and may provide additional audio, video, or instant messaging communication utilizing the TCP/IP protocol stack. VoIP
VoIP
gateways can be combined with traditional PBX functionality to allow businesses to use their managed intranet to help reduce long distance expenses and take advantage of the benefits of a single network for voice and data (converged network)
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Internet Protocol
The Internet
Internet
Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite
Internet protocol suite
for relaying packets across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet. IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. For this purpose, IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information. Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf
Vint Cerf
and Bob Kahn in 1974; the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
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Conference Calling
A conference call is a telephone call in which someone talks to several people at the same time. The conference calls may be designed to allow the called party to participate during the call, or the call may be set up so that the called party merely listens into the call and cannot speak. It is sometimes called ATC (audio tele-conference). Conference calls can be designed so that the calling party calls the other participants and adds them to the call; however, participants are usually able to call into the conference call themselves by dialing a telephone number that connects to a "conference bridge" (a specialized type of equipment that links telephone lines). Companies commonly use a specialized service provider who maintains the conference bridge, or who provides the phone numbers and PIN codes that participants dial to access the meeting or conference call
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Circuit Switched
Circuit switching
Circuit switching
is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate. The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of the channel and remains connected for the duration of the communication session. The circuit functions as if the nodes were physically connected as with an electrical circuit. The defining example of a circuit-switched network is the early analog telephone network. When a call is made from one telephone to another, switches within the telephone exchanges create a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones, for as long as the call lasts. Circuit switching
Circuit switching
contrasts with packet switching, which divides the data to be transmitted into packets transmitted through the network independently
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