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Printed Circuit Board
A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate . Components (e.g. capacitors , resistors or active devices) are generally soldered on the PCB. Advanced PCBs may contain components embedded in the substrate. PCBs can be single sided (one copper layer), double sided (two copper layers) or multi-layer (outer and inner layers). Conductors on different layers are connected with vias . Multi-layer PCBs allow for much higher component density. FR-4 glass epoxy is the primary insulating substrate. A basic building block of the PCB is an FR-4 panel with a thin layer of copper foil laminated to one or both sides. In multi-layer boards multiple layers of material are laminated together. Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products
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Electromagnetic Interference
ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI), also called RADIO-FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction. The disturbance may degrade the performance of the circuit or even stop it from functioning. In the case of a data path, these effects can range from an increase in error rate to a total loss of the data. Both man-made and natural sources generate changing electrical currents and voltages that can cause EMI: automobile ignition systems, mobile phones, thunderstorms, the Sun
Sun
, and the Northern Lights . EMI frequently affects AM radios . It can also affect mobile phones , FM radios , and televisions , as well as observations for radio astronomy . EMI can be used intentionally for radio jamming , as in electronic warfare
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Alternating Current
ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. Alternating current
Alternating current
is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances , televisions and electric lamps into a wall socket . A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight . The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage . The usual waveform of alternating current in most electric power circuits is a sine wave . In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as triangular or square waves
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Substrate (electronics)
SUBSTRATE (also called a wafer ) is a solid (usually planar ) substance onto which a layer of another substance is applied, and to which that second substance adheres. In solid-state electronics , this term refers to a thin slice of material such as silicon , silicon dioxide , aluminum oxide , sapphire , germanium , gallium arsenide (GaAs), an alloy of silicon and germanium, or indium phosphide (InP). These serve as the foundation upon which electronic devices such as transistors , diodes , and especially integrated circuits (ICs) are deposited. Note that a substrate in the field of electronics is either a semiconductor or an electrical insulator , depending on the fabrication process that is being used. For the cases in which an insulator such as silicon oxide or aluminum oxide is used as the substrate, what happens next is the following. On top of the oxide, a thin layer of semiconducting material, usually pure silicon
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Postage Stamp Separation
For postage stamps , SEPARATION is the means by which individual stamps are made easily detachable from each other. Methods of separation include: * PERFORATION : cutting rows and columns of small holes * ROULETTING: small horizontal and vertical cuts * DIECUTTING : cut paper to shape using a metal die—used for self-adhesive stamps .CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Henry Archer * 3 The rotary process * 4 Measurement and variations * 5 Rouletting * 6 Self-adhesive stamps * 7 Collecting * 8 Errors * 9 See also * 10 References and sources * 11 Further reading * 12 External links EARLY YEARSIn the early years, from 1840 until 1850, all stamps were issued IMPERFORATE, and had to be cut from the sheet with scissors or knife. This was time-consuming and error-prone (as mangled stamps of the era attest). Once reliable separation equipment became available, nations switched rapidly
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Netlist
In electronic design , a NETLIST is a description of the connectivity of an electronic circuit . In its simplest form, a netlist consists of a list of the electronic components in a circuit and a list of the nodes they are connected to. A network (net) is a collection of two or more interconnected components. The structure, complexity and representation of netlists can vary considerably, but the fundamental purpose of every netlist is to convey connectivity information . Netlists usually provide nothing more than instances, nodes, and perhaps some attributes of the components involved. If they express much more than this, they are usually considered to be a hardware description language such as Verilog or VHDL
VHDL
, or one of several languages specifically designed for input to simulators . Netlists can be physical or logical, instance-based or net-based, and flat or hierarchical. The latter can be either folded or unfolded
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Computer Aided Design
COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD) is the use of computer systems (or workstations ) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design . CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing. CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations. The term CADD (for Computer Aided Design
Design
and Drafting) is also used. Its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation , or EDA. In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation (MDA) or COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING (CAD), which includes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software
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Fibre-reinforced Plastic
FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC (FRP) (also called FIBRE-REINFORCED POLYMER, or FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres . The fibres are usually glass , carbon , aramid , or basalt . Rarely, other fibres such as paper, wood, or asbestos have been used. The polymer is usually an epoxy , vinylester , or polyester thermosetting plastic , though phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use. FRPs are commonly used in the aerospace, automotive, marine, and construction industries. They are commonly found in ballistic armor as well
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Plotter
The PLOTTER is a computer printer for printing vector graphics . In the past, plotters were used in applications such as computer-aided design , though they have generally been replaced with wide-format conventional printers. A plotter gives a hard copy of the output. It draws pictures on a paper using a pen. Plotters are used to print designs of ships and machines, plans for buildings and so on. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Electrostatic plotters * 3 Cutting plotters * 4 History * 5 Vinyl cutter * 6 Static cutting table * 7 Contemporary uses of pen plotters * 8 See also * 9 References OVERVIEWDigitally controlled plotters evolved from earlier fully analog XY-WRITERS used as output devices for measurement instruments and analog computers . Pen
Pen
plotters print by moving a pen or other instrument across the surface of a piece of paper
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Laminated
LAMINATION is the technique of manufacturing a material in multiple layers, so that the composite material achieves improved strength , stability, sound insulation , appearance or other properties from the use of differing materials. A laminate is a permanently assembled object by heat , pressure , welding , or adhesives . CONTENTS * 1 Materials * 2 Building materials * 2.1 Paper * 3 Photo laminators * 4 Film types * 5 See also * 6 References MATERIALS This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )There are different lamination processes, depending on the type of materials to be laminated. The materials used in laminates can be the same or different, depending on the processes and the object to be laminated
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Mylar
BOPET (BIAXIALLY-ORIENTED POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) is a polyester film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and is used for its high tensile strength , chemical and dimensional stability , transparency , reflectivity , gas and aroma barrier properties, and electrical insulation . A variety of companies manufacture boPET and other polyester films under different brand names . In the UK and US, the most well-known trade names are MYLAR, MELINEX, and HOSTAPHAN
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Sinclair Research
SINCLAIR RESEARCH LTD is a British consumer electronics company founded by Clive Sinclair
Clive Sinclair
in Cambridge
Cambridge
. It was originally incorporated in 1973 as Westminster Mail Order Ltd, renamed Sinclair Instrument Ltd, then Science of Cambridge
Cambridge
Ltd, then Sinclair Computers Ltd, and finally Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
Ltd in 1975. It remained dormant until 1976, when it was activated with the intention of continuing Sinclair's commercial work from his earlier company Sinclair Radionics , and adopted the name Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
in 1981. In 1980, Clive Sinclair
Clive Sinclair
entered the home computer market with the ZX80
ZX80
at £99.95, at that time the cheapest personal computer for sale in the United Kingdom
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Dry Transfer
DRY TRANSFERS (also called RUB-ONS or RUBDOWNS) are decals that can be applied without the use of water or other solvent . The decal itself is on a backing material such as paper or plastic sheeting much like a transparency . The dry transfer is placed in the desired location with the backing side up. The decal is then applied by burnishing the backing with a stylus or similar object such as a ballpoint pen . The contact side of the decal includes a pressure-sensitive adhesive ; the combination of heat and pressure causes the decal to stick more strongly to the new surface than to the backing. When the backing is removed, the decal remains. This allows for ink only where needed even if the pattern is delicate, because the backing supports the decal while it is being applied. Dry transfers are used in manual technical drawing when standard graphic elements such as title blocks, forms, patterned lines, shading, piping or electronic schematic symbols need to be repetitively used
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General Electric
GENERAL ELECTRIC (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
. As of 2016, the company operates through the following segments: Aviation , Current , Digital, Energy
Energy
Connections, Global Research , Healthcare , Lighting
Lighting
, Oil
Oil
and Gas , Power , Renewable Energy, Transportation , and Capital which cater to the needs of Financial services
Financial services
, Medical devices , Life Sciences
Life Sciences
, Pharmaceutical
Pharmaceutical
, Automotive
Automotive
, Software
Software
Development and Engineering industries. As of 2017, General Electric
General Electric
has the most patent assignments of all US-based corporations
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Photomask
A PHOTOMASK is an opaque plate with holes or transparencies that allow light to shine through in a defined pattern. They are commonly used in photolithography . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF) * 3 Pellicles * 4 Leading commercial photomask manufacturers * 5 See also * 6 References OVERVIEW A simulated photomask. The thicker features are the integrated circuit that is desired to be printed on the wafer. The thinner features are assists that do not print themselves, but help the integrated circuit print better out-of-focus. The zig-zag appearance of the photomask is because optical proximity correction was applied to it to create a better print
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CNC
COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands. This is in contrast to machines that are manually controlled by hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated by cams alone. In modern CNC systems, the design of a mechanical part and its manufacturing program is highly automated. The part's mechanical dimensions are defined using computer-aided design (CAD) software, and then translated into manufacturing directives by computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software. The resulting directives are transformed (by "post processor" software) into the specific commands necessary for a particular machine to produce the component, and then are loaded into the CNC machine. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools – drills , saws , etc. – modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell"
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