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Printed Circuit Board
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate. Components are generally soldered onto the PCB to both electrically connect and mechanically fasten them to it. Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. They are also used in some electrical products, such as passive switch boxes. Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction, both once popular but now rarely used. PCBs require additional design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Specialized CAD software is available to do much of the work of layout. Mass-producing circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with other wiring methods, as components are mounted and wired in one operation
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Printed Electronics
Printed electronics
Printed electronics
is a set of printing methods used to create electrical devices on various substrates. Printing
Printing
typically uses common printing equipment suitable for defining patterns on material, such as screen printing, flexography, gravure, offset lithography, and inkjet. By electronic industry standards, these are low cost processes. Electrically functional electronic or optical inks are deposited on the substrate, creating active or passive devices, such as thin film transistors; capacitors; coils; resistors
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FR-4
FR-4 (or FR4) is a NEMA grade designation for glass-reinforced epoxy laminate material. FR-4 is a composite material composed of woven fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin binder that is flame resistant (self-extinguishing). "FR" stands for flame retardant, and denotes that the material complies with the standard UL94V-0. The designation FR-4 was created by NEMA in 1968. FR-4 glass epoxy is a popular and versatile high-pressure thermoset plastic laminate grade with good strength to weight ratios. With near zero water absorption, FR-4 is most commonly used as an electrical insulator possessing considerable mechanical strength. The material is known to retain its high mechanical values and electrical insulating qualities in both dry and humid conditions
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Resistor
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses. High-power resistors that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat, may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test loads for generators. Fixed resistors have resistances that only change slightly with temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust circuit elements (such as a volume control or a lamp dimmer), or as sensing devices for heat, light, humidity, force, or chemical activity. Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors as discrete components can be composed of various compounds and forms
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IEEE Cledo Brunetti Award
The IEEE
IEEE
Cledo Brunetti Award
Award
is an award is presented for outstanding contributions to nanotechnology and miniaturization in the electronics arts. It may be presented to an individual or a team of up to three. The award was established in 1975 by the IEEE
IEEE
Board of Directors. Recipients of this award receive bronze medal, a certificate and honorarium. Basis for judging: In the evaluation process, the following criteria are considered: innovation, development, social value, uniqueness of concept, other technical accomplishments, and the quality of the nomination. Nomination deadline: 31 January Notification: Recipients are typically approved during the June IEEE Board of Directors meeting, usually held towards the end of the month. Recipients and their nominators will be notified following the meeting
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Integrated Circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics
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Solder
Solder
Solder
(/ˈsoʊldər/,[1] /ˈsɒldər/[1] or in North America /ˈsɒdər/[2]) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces. The word solder comes from the Middle English word soudur, via Old French
Old French
solduree and soulder, from the Latin
Latin
solidare, meaning "to make solid".[3] In fact, solder must first be melted in order to adhere to and connect the pieces together after cooling, which requires that an alloy suitable for use as solder have a lower melting point than the pieces being joined. The solder should also be resistant to oxidative and corrosive effects that would degrade the joint over time
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Through-hole Technology
Through-hole technology
Through-hole technology
(tht), also spelled "thru-hole", refers to the mounting scheme used for electronic components that involves the use of leads on the components that are inserted into holes drilled in printed circuit boards (PCB) and soldered to pads on the opposite side either by manual assembly (hand placement) or by the use of automated insertion mount machines.[1][2]Contents1 History 2 Leads2.1 Axial and radial leads 2.2 Multiple lead devices3 Characteristics 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]Through-hole devices mounted on the circuit board of a mid-1980s home computer. Axial-lead devices are at upper left, while blue radial-lead capacitors are at upper right Through-hole technology
Through-hole technology
almost completely replaced earlier electronics assembly techniques such as point-to-point construction
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United States Army Signal Corps
The United States
United States
Army Signal Corps (USASC) develops, tests, provides, and manages communications and information systems support for the command and control of combined arms forces. It was established in 1860, the brainchild of United States
United States
Army Major Albert J. Myer, and has had an important role from the American Civil War
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Dip Soldering
Dip soldering
Dip soldering
is a small-scale soldering process by which electronic components are soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB) to form an electronic assembly. The solder wets to the exposed metallic areas of the board (those not protected with solder mask), creating a reliable mechanical and electrical connection. Dip soldering
Dip soldering
is used for both through-hole printed circuit assemblies, and surface mount
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Wave Soldering
Wave soldering
Wave soldering
is a bulk soldering process used in the manufacture of printed circuit boards. The circuit board is passed over a pan of molten solder in which a pump produces an upwelling of solder that looks like a standing wave. As the circuit board makes contact with this wave, the components become soldered to the board. Wave soldering is used for both through-hole printed circuit assemblies, and surface mount. In the latter case, the components are glued onto the surface of a printed circuit board (PCB) by placement equipment, before being run through the molten solder wave. Wave soldering
Wave soldering
is mainly used in soldering of through hole components. As through-hole components have been largely replaced by surface mount components, wave soldering has been supplanted by reflow soldering methods in many large-scale electronics applications
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Photoresist
A photoresist is a light-sensitive material used in several processes, such as photolithography and photoengraving, to form a patterned coating on a surface. This process is crucial in the electronic industry.[1] The process begins by coating a substrate with a light-sensitive organic material. A patterned mask is then applied to the surface to block light, so that only unmasked regions of the material will be exposed to light. A solvent, called a developer, is then applied to the surface. In the case of a positive photoresist, the photo-sensitive material is degraded by light and the developer will dissolve away the regions that were exposed to light, leaving behind a coating where the mask was placed
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Fibre-reinforced Plastic
Fibre-reinforced plastic
Fibre-reinforced plastic
(FRP) (also called fibre-reinforced polymer, or fiber-reinforced plastic) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass (in fibreglass), carbon (in carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer), aramid, or basalt. Rarely, other fibres such as paper, wood, or asbestos have been used. The polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester, or polyester thermosetting plastic, though phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use. FRPs are commonly used in the aerospace, automotive, marine, and construction industries
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Printed Circuit Corporation
Printed Circuit Corporation
Printed Circuit Corporation
(PCC) was founded in 1961 and was a contract printed circuit board manufacturer located in Woburn, Massachusetts. (SIC Code 3672).[2] PCC provided its products to companies in the electronics, instrumentation, medical, telecommunication, and automotive industries.[3] The majority of the boards produced were multilayer (4, 6, 8, or 10-layer).[3] In 1995, the environmental advances made by the firm were highlighted in a joint study by The Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute in conjunction with the University of Massachusetts Lowell.[3] In 2001, PCC was featured on an ABC-TV business news show called Business Now.[4] The show featured the technology that the company used and the management disciplines that allowed it to compete effectively in the world PWB market. Peter Sarmanian was the founder and CEO of Printed Circuit Corporation
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IPC (electronics)
IPC, the Association Connecting Electronics
Electronics
Industries, is a trade association whose aim is to standardize the assembly and production requirements of electronic equipment and assemblies. It was founded in 1957 as the Institute for Printed Circuits. Its name was later changed to the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits to highlight the expansion from bare boards to packaging and electronic assemblies. In 1999, the organization formally changed its name to IPC with the accompanying tagline, Association Connecting Electronics
Electronics
Industries.[1] IPC is accredited by the American National Standards Institute
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) as a standards developing organization[2] and is known globally for its standards
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Backplane
A backplane (or "backplane system") is a group of electrical connectors in parallel with each other, so that each pin of each connector is linked to the same relative pin of all the other connectors, forming a computer bus. It is used as a backbone to connect several printed circuit boards together to make up a complete computer system. Backplanes commonly use a printed circuit board, but wire-wrapped backplanes have also been used in minicomputers and high-reliability applications.Contents1 Usage 2 Active versus passive backplanes 3 Backplanes versus motherboards 4 Midplane 5 Backplanes in storage 6 Platforms6.1 PICMG7 See also 8 ReferencesUsage[edit] Early microcomputer systems like the Altair 8800
Altair 8800
used a backplane for the processor and expansion cards. A backplane is generally differentiated from a motherboard by the lack of on-board processing and storage elements
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