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Printed Circuit Board
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. Components (e.g. capacitors, resistors or active devices) are generally soldered on the PCB. Advanced PCBs may contain components embedded in the substrate. PCBs can be single sided (one copper layer), double sided (two copper layers) or multi-layer (outer and inner layers). Conductors on different layers are connected with vias. Multi-layer PCBs allow for much higher component density. FR-4 glass epoxy is the primary insulating substrate. A basic building block of the PCB is an FR-4 panel with a thin layer of copper foil laminated to one or both sides. In multi-layer boards multiple layers of material are laminated together. Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction
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Printed Electronics
PRINTED ELECTRONICS is a set of printing methods used to create electrical devices on various substrates. Printing
Printing
typically uses common printing equipment suitable for defining patterns on material, such as screen printing , flexography , gravure , offset lithography , and inkjet . By electronic industry standards, these are low cost processes. Electrically functional electronic or optical inks are deposited on the substrate, creating active or passive devices, such as thin film transistors ; capacitors; coils; resistors . Printed electronics is expected to facilitate widespread, very low-cost, low-performance electronics for applications such as flexible displays , smart labels , decorative and animated posters, and active clothing that do not require high performance. The term printed electronics is often related to organic electronics or plastic electronics , in which one or more inks are composed of carbon-based compounds. These other terms refer to the ink material, which can be deposited by solution-based, vacuum-based or other processes. Printed electronics, in contrast, specifies the process, and, subject to the specific requirements of the printing process selected, can utilize any solution-based material. This includes organic semiconductors , inorganic semiconductors , metallic conductors, nanoparticles , nanotubes , etc. For the preparation of printed electronics nearly all industrial printing methods are employed
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Printed Circuit Corporation
PRINTED CIRCUIT CORPORATION (PCC), was founded in 1961, and was a contract printed circuit board manufacturer located in Woburn, Massachusetts . (SIC Code 3672). PCC provided its products to companies in the electronics, instrumentation, medical, telecommunication, and automotive industries. The majority of the boards produced were multilayer (4, 6, 8, or 10-layer). In 1995, the environmental advances made by the firm were highlighted in a joint study by The Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute in conjunction with the University of Massachusetts Lowell
University of Massachusetts Lowell
. In 2001, PCC was featured on an ABC-TV business news show called Business Now. The show featured the technology that the company used and the management disciplines that allowed it to compete effectively in the world PWB market. Peter Sarmanian was the founder and CEO of Printed Circuit Corporation. Sarmanian's contributions to the PWB industry as a whole have been recognized by the IPC on an annual basis. CONTENTS * 1 Company history * 2 Printed Circuit Corporation\'s business approach * 3 The End of PCC * 4 Environmental Battles * 5 References COMPANY HISTORYPeter Sarmanian started Printed Circuit Corporation
Printed Circuit Corporation
in 1961 during the early days of the computer industry
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Sinclair Research
SINCLAIR RESEARCH LTD is a British consumer electronics company founded by Clive Sinclair in Cambridge
Cambridge
. It was originally incorporated in 1973 as Westminster Mail Order Ltd, renamed Sinclair Instrument Ltd, then Science of Cambridge
Cambridge
Ltd, then Sinclair Computers Ltd, and finally Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
Ltd in 1975. It remained dormant until 1976, when it was activated with the intention of continuing Sinclair's commercial work from his earlier company Sinclair Radionics , and adopted the name Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
in 1981. In 1980, Clive Sinclair entered the home computer market with the ZX80 at £99.95, at that time the cheapest personal computer for sale in the United Kingdom. In 1982 the ZX Spectrum
ZX Spectrum
was released, becoming the UK's best selling computer, and competing aggressively against Commodore and Amstrad . At the height of its success, and largely inspired by the Japanese Fifth Generation Computer program, the company established the "MetaLab" research centre at Milton Hall near Cambridge, in order to pursue artificial intelligence , wafer-scale integration , formal verification and other advanced projects
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Zx Spectrum
The ZX SPECTRUM (UK : /zɛd ɛks ˈspɛktrəm/ ) is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research . It was manufactured in Dundee
Dundee
, Scotland, in the now closed Timex factory. Referred to during development as the ZX81 Colour and ZX82, it was launched as the ZX Spectrum
ZX Spectrum
by Sinclair to highlight the machine's colour display, compared with the black and white of its predecessor, the ZX81 . The Spectrum was released as eight different models, ranging from the entry level with 16 KB RAM released in 1982 to the ZX Spectrum +3 with 128 KB RAM and built in floppy disk drive in 1987; together they sold in excess of 5 million units worldwide (not counting clones ). The Spectrum was among the first mainstream-audience home computers in the UK, similar in significance to the Commodore 64 in the USA. The introduction of the ZX Spectrum
ZX Spectrum
led to a boom in companies producing software and hardware for the machine, the effects of which are still seen; some credit it as the machine which launched the UK IT industry. Licensing deals and clones followed, and earned Clive Sinclair a knighthood for "services to British industry"
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Via (electronics)
A VIA or VIA (Latin for path or way, also known as VERTICAL INTERCONNECT ACCESS) is an electrical connection between layers in a physical electronic circuit that goes through the plane of one or more adjacent layers. CONTENTS * 1 In IC * 2 In PCB * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links IN ICIn integrated circuit design, a via is a small opening in an insulating oxide layer that allows a conductive connection between different layers. A via on an integrated circuit is often called a through-chip via . A via connecting the lowest layer of metal to diffusion or poly is typically called a "contact". IN PCB Different types of vias: (1) Through hole
Through hole
. (2) Blind via. (3) Buried via. The grey and green layers are non-conducting, while the thin orange layers and vias are conductive. PCB Via current capacity chart showing 1mil Plating Via Current Capacity this is known as a CASTELLATED HOLE and is used for a variety of reasons, including allowing one PCB to be soldered to another in a stack. Three major kinds of vias are shown in right figure. The basic steps of making a PCB are: making the substrate material and stacking it in layers; through-drilling of plating the vias; and copper trace patterning using photolithography and etching
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Electronic Component
An ELECTRONIC COMPONENT is any basic DISCRETE DEVICE or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields. Electronic components are mostly industrial products, available in a singular form and are not to be confused with electrical elements , which are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electronic components. Electronic components have a number of electrical terminals or leads . These leads connect to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier , radio receiver , or oscillator ). Basic electronic components may be packaged discretely, as arrays or networks of like components, or integrated inside of packages such as semiconductor integrated circuits , hybrid integrated circuits , or thick film devices. The following list of electronic components focuses on the discrete version of these components, treating such packages as components in their owner right
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Electrical Conductor
In physics and electrical engineering , a CONDUCTOR is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions. Materials made of metal are common electrical conductors. Electrical current is generated by the flow of negatively charged electrons, positively charged holes, and positive or negative ions in some cases. In order for current to flow, it is not necessary for one charged particle to travel from the machine producing the current to that consuming it. Instead, the charged particle simply needs to nudge its neighbor a finite amount who will nudge its neighbor and on and on until a particle is nudged into the consumer, thus powering the machine. Essentially what is occurring here is a long chain of momentum transfer between mobile charge carriers; the Drude model of conduction describes this process more rigorously. This momentum transfer model makes metal an ideal choice for a conductor as metals, characteristically, possess a delocalized sea of electrons which gives the electrons enough mobility to collide and thus effect a momentum transfer. As discussed above, electrons are the primary mover in metals; however, other devices such as the cationic electrolyte (s) of a battery , or the mobile protons of the proton conductor of a fuel cell rely on positive charge carriers. Insulators are non-conducting materials with few mobile charges that support only insignificant electric currents
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Industrial Etching
CHEMICAL MILLING or INDUSTRIAL ETCHING is the subtractive manufacturing process of using baths of temperature-regulated etching chemicals to remove material to create an object with the desired shape. It is mostly used on metals, though other materials are increasingly important. It was developed from armor-decorating and printing etching processes developed during the Renaissance as alternatives to engraving on metal. The process essentially involves bathing the cutting areas in a corrosive chemical known as an ETCHANT, which reacts with the material in the area to be cut and causes the solid material to be dissolved; inert substances known as MASKANTS are used to protect specific areas of the material as resists . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Applications * 3 Process * 3.1 Cleaning * 3.2 Masking * 3.2.1 Maskant types * 3.3 Scribing * 3.4 Etching * 3.5 Demasking * 4 Common etchants * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links * 8 See also HISTORY An etched and partially russeted and gilded half armor made of steel, brass, leather, and textiles Organic chemicals such as lactic acid and citric acid have been used to etch metals and create products as early as 400 BCE, when vinegar was used to corrode lead and create the pigment ceruse , also known as white lead . Most modern chemical milling methods involve alkaline etchants; these may have been used as early as the first century CE
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Laminated
LAMINATION is the technique of manufacturing a material in multiple layers, so that the composite material achieves improved strength , stability, sound insulation , appearance or other properties from the use of differing materials. A laminate is a permanently assembled object by heat , pressure , welding , or adhesives . CONTENTS * 1 Materials * 2 Building materials * 2.1 Paper * 3 Photo laminators * 4 Film types * 5 See also * 6 References MATERIALS This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )There are different lamination processes, depending on the type of materials to be laminated. The materials used in laminates can be the same or different, depending on the processes and the object to be laminated. An example of the type of laminate using different materials would be the application of a layer of plastic film —the "laminate"—on either side of a sheet of glass —the laminated subject. Vehicle windshields are commonly made by laminating a tough plastic film between two layers of glass. This is to prevent shards of glass detaching from the windshield in case it breaks. Plywood is a common example of a laminate using the same material in each layer
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Insulator (electricity)
An ELECTRICAL INSULATOR is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field . This contrasts with other materials, semiconductors and conductors , which conduct electric current more easily. The property that distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity ; insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors or conductors. A perfect insulator does not exist, because even insulators contain small numbers of mobile charges (charge carriers ) which can carry current. In addition, all insulators become electrically conductive when a sufficiently large voltage is applied that the electric field tears electrons away from the atoms. This is known as the breakdown voltage of an insulator. Some materials such as glass , paper and Teflon , which have high resistivity , are very good electrical insulators. A much larger class of materials, even though they may have lower bulk resistivity, are still good enough to prevent significant current from flowing at normally used voltages, and thus are employed as insulation for electrical wiring and cables . Examples include rubber-like polymers and most plastics which can be thermoset or thermoplastic in nature. Insulators are used in electrical equipment to support and separate electrical conductors without allowing current through themselves
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Substrate (electronics)
SUBSTRATE (also called a wafer ) is a solid (usually planar ) substance onto which a layer of another substance is applied, and to which that second substance adheres. In solid-state electronics , this term refers to a thin slice of material such as silicon , silicon dioxide , aluminum oxide , sapphire , germanium , gallium arsenide (GaAs), an alloy of silicon and germanium, or indium phosphide (InP). These serve as the foundation upon which electronic devices such as transistors , diodes , and especially integrated circuits (ICs) are deposited. Note that a substrate in the field of electronics is either a semiconductor or an electrical insulator , depending on the fabrication process that is being used. For the cases in which an insulator such as silicon oxide or aluminum oxide is used as the substrate, what happens next is the following. On top of the oxide, a thin layer of semiconducting material, usually pure silicon. Next, using the standard photographic processes repeatedly, transistors and diodes are fabricated in the semiconductor. The advantage of this (more costly) fabrication process is that the oxide layer can provide superior insulation between adjacent transistors. This process is especially used for electronics which must withstand ionizing radiation , such as in space exploration missions through the Van Allen radiation belts ; in military and naval systems which might have to withstand nuclear radiation ; and in instrumentation for nuclear reactors
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Capacitor
A CAPACITOR is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in an electric field . The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance . While capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors of a circuit in sufficiently close proximity, a capacitor is specifically designed to provide and enhance this effect for a variety of practical applications by consideration of size, shape, and positioning of closely spaced conductors, and the intervening dielectric material. A capacitor was therefore historically first known as an electric CONDENSER. The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many capacitor types are in common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may be a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte . The nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's charge capacity. Materials commonly used as dielectrics include glass , ceramic , plastic film , paper , mica , and oxide layers . Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor , an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy
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Resistor
A RESISTOR is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines , among other uses. High-power resistors that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test loads for generators . Fixed resistors have resistances that only change slightly with temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust circuit elements (such as a volume control or a lamp dimmer), or as sensing devices for heat, light, humidity, force, or chemical activity. Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment . Practical resistors as discrete components can be composed of various compounds and forms. Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits . The electrical function of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude . The nominal value of the resistance falls within the manufacturing tolerance , indicated on the component
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Soldering
SOLDERING (AmE : /ˈsɒdərɪŋ/ , BrE : /ˈsɒldərɪŋ/ ), is a process in which two or more items (usually metal) are joined together by melting and putting a filler metal (solder ) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Soldering differs from welding in that soldering does not involve melting the work pieces. In brazing , the filler metal melts at a higher temperature, but the work piece metal does not melt. In the past, nearly all solders contained lead , but environmental and health concerns have increasingly dictated use of lead-free alloys for electronics and plumbing purposes
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FR-4
FR-4 (or FR4) is a grade designation assigned to glass-reinforced epoxy laminate sheets, tubes, rods and printed circuit boards (PCBs). FR-4 is a composite material composed of woven fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin binder that is flame resistant (self-extinguishing). "FR" stands for FLAME RETARDANT, and denotes that safety of flammability of FR-4 is in compliance with the standard UL94V-0 . FR-4 was created from the constituent materials (epoxy resin , woven glass fabric reinforcement , brominated flame retardant , etc.) by NEMA in 1968. FR-4 glass epoxy is a popular and versatile high-pressure thermoset plastic laminate grade with good strength to weight ratios. With near zero water absorption, FR-4 is most commonly used as an electrical insulator possessing considerable mechanical strength. The material is known to retain its high mechanical values and electrical insulating qualities in both dry and humid conditions. These attrib