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Prince
A PRINCE is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. _Prince_ is also a title of nobility , often hereditary , in some European states . The feminine equivalent is a princess . The English word derives, via the French word _prince_, from the Latin noun _princeps _, from _primus_ (first) + _capio_ (to seize), meaning "the chief, most distinguished, ruler , prince"
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Prince (musician)
PRINCE ROGERS NELSON (June 7, 1958 – April 21, 2016) was an American singer-songwriter, actor, multi-instrumentalist, philanthropist, dancer and record producer. He was a musical innovator who was known for his eclectic work, flamboyant stage presence, extravagant dress and makeup, and wide vocal range . His music integrates a wide variety of styles, including funk , rock , R 1933–2002) and John Lewis Nelson (1916–2001). His parents were both African-American and his family ancestry is centered in Louisiana ; all four of his grandparents came from that state. Prince's father was a pianist and songwriter, and his mother was a jazz singer. Prince was given his father's stage name, Prince Rogers, which his father used while performing with a jazz group called the Prince Rogers Trio. In 1991, Prince's father told _A Current Affair _ that "I named my son Prince because I wanted him to do everything I wanted to do". Prince's childhood nickname was Skipper. Prince has said he was "born epileptic " and "used to have seizures" when he was young. He also said: "My mother told me one day I walked in to her and said, 'Mom, I'm not going to be sick anymore,' and she said, 'Why?' and I said, 'Because an angel told me so.'" Prince's sister Tika Evene (usually called Tyka) was born in 1960. Both siblings developed a keen interest in music, and this was encouraged by their father. Prince wrote his first tune, "Funk Machine", on his father's piano when he was seven
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Royal And Noble Ranks
Traditional rank amongst European royalty , peers , and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages . Although they vary over time and between geographic regions (for example, one region's prince might be equal to another's grand duke ), the following is a reasonably comprehensive list that provides information on both general ranks and specific differences. CONTENTS* 1 Ranks and title * 1.1 Sovereign * 1.2 Other sovereigns, royalty, peers, and major nobility * 1.3 Minor nobility, gentry, and other aristocracy * 2 Corresponding titles of nobility between languages * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links RANKS AND TITLE _ This article contains embedded lists that MAY BE POORLY DEFINED, UNVERIFIED OR INDISCRIMINATE . Please help to clean it up to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Where appropriate, incorporate items into the main body of the article. (November 2016)_SOVEREIGN Main articles: Monarch and Sovereign _ It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Royal title _. (Discuss ) _(November 2016)_ _ This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Emperor
An EMPEROR (through Old French _empereor_ from Latin _IMPERATOR _ ) is a monarch , usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. EMPRESS, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (_empress consort _), mother (_empress dowager _), or a woman who rules in her own right (_empress regnant _). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings . In Europe
Europe
the title of Emperor
Emperor
has been used since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope
Pope
, due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe
Europe
. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as "Emperor". Both kings and emperors are monarchs , but _emperor_ and _empress_ are considered the higher monarchical titles. In as much as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler, and typically rules over more than one nation. Thus a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, but an emperor should in theory be completely free of such restraints
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King
KING is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant (while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king). * In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship . Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f. Indic _rājan _, Gothic _reiks _, and Old Irish _rí _, etc.) * In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate Latin _rex _ or either Greek _archon _ or _basileus _. * In classical European feudalism , the title of _king_ as the ruler of a KINGDOM is understood as the highest rank in the feudal order, potentially subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor (harking back to the client kings of the Roman Empire ). * In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies (either absolute or constitutional). The title of _king_ is used alongside other titles for monarchs, in the West prince , emperor , archduke , duke or grand duke , in the Middle East sultan or emir ; etc. King may also refer to a king consort , a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen , however the title prince consort is sometimes granted instead
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Archduke
ARCHDUKE (feminine: ARCHDUCHESS; German: _Erzherzog_, feminine form: _Erzherzogin_) was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria , and later by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire (962–1806), which was below that of Emperor and King and above that of (debatably) a Grand Duke, Duke and Prince . The territory ruled by an Archduke or Archduchess was called an Archduchy. All remaining Archduchies ceased to exist in 1918. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 History * 3 Usage * 4 Insignia * 5 See also * 6 References and notes TERMINOLOGYThe English word is first recorded in 1530, derived from Middle , via Old , French _archeduc_, from Merovingian Latin _archidux_, from Greek _arch(i)-_, ἀρχι- meaning "authority" or "primary" (see _arch-_) and _dux _ "duke" (literally "leader") "Archduke" (German : _Erzherzog_; Dutch : _Aartshertog_) is a title distinct from "Grand Duke " (French : _Grand-Duc_; Luxembourgish : _Groussherzog_; German : _Großherzog_), a later monarchic title borne by the rulers of other European countries (for instance, Luxembourg ). HISTORYThe first known claim to the title of Archduke was by the rulers of Austrasia (c
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Grand Prince
The title GRAND PRINCE or GREAT PRINCE ( Latin : _magnus princeps_, Greek : _megas archon_) ranked in honour below king and emperor and above a sovereign prince . Grand duke is the usual and established, though not literal , translation of these terms in English and Romance languages , which do not normally use separate words for a "prince" who reigns as a monarch (e.g., Albert II, Prince of Monaco ) and a "prince" who does not reign, but belongs to a monarch's family (e.g., Prince William, Duke of Cambridge ). German, Dutch, Slavic and Scandinavian languages do use separate words to express this concept, and in those languages _grand prince_ is understood as a distinct title (for a cadet of a dynasty ) from _grand duke_ (hereditary ruler ranking below a king). The title of _grand prince_ was once used for the sovereign of a "grand principality". The last titular grand principalities vanished in 1917 and 1918, the territories being united into other monarchies or becoming republics . Already at that stage, the grand principalities of Lithuania , Transylvania and Finland had been for centuries under rulers of other, bigger monarchies, so that the title of _grand prince_ was superseded by a royal title (king/tsar) or an imperial one (emperor)
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Grand Duke
The monarchic title of GRAND DUKE (feminine: GRAND DUCHESS) ranked in order of precedence below emperor and king , and above that of sovereign prince and sovereign duke . It is or was used in some independent nations or states in Europe, particularly: * In present-day Luxembourg * Historically for the sovereigns of former independent countries such as: Tuscany (from 1569 to 1860, now part of Italy); Baden , Oldenburg , Saxe-Weimar , Mecklenburg-Schwerin , etc. — grand duchies from 1815 to 1918 and all now part of Germany * Formerly also for some nations in Eastern and Northeastern Europe, such as Finland and Lithuania. * Several micronations have the title as it's form of monarch.Translations for _grand duke_ include: in Latin, _magnus dux_; in Luxembourgish _Groussherzog_; in German _Großherzog_; in French _Grand-Duc_; in Spanish, _Gran Duque_; in Russian, _великий князь_ (_velikiy kniaz_, literally "grand prince"); in Italian _Gran Duca_; in Portuguese _grão-duque_; in Finnish, _suurherttua_; in Polish, _wielki książę_; in Hungarian, _nagyherceg_; in Swedish, _storhertig_; in Dutch in Danish, _storhertug_; in Lithuanian, _didysis kunigaikštis_; in Latvian, _lielhercogs_; in Czech _velkovévoda_ or _velkokníže_
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Infante
_INFANTE_ (Spanish: , Portuguese: ; f. _INFANTA_), also anglicised as INFANT or translated as PRINCE , is the title and rank given in the Iberian kingdoms of Spain (including the predecessor kingdoms of Aragon , Castile , Navarre and León ), and Portugal , to the sons and daughters (_infantas_) of the king, sometimes with the exception of the heir apparent to the throne who usually bears a unique princely or ducal title. The wife of an _infante_ was accorded the title of _infanta_ if the marriage was dynastically approved (e.g. Princess Alicia of Bourbon-Parma ), although since 1987 this is no longer automatically the case in Spain (e.g. Princess Anne d\'Orléans ). Husbands of born _infantas_ did not obtain the title of _infante_ through marriage (unlike most hereditary titles of Spanish nobility ), although occasionally elevated to that title _de gracia_ ("by grace") at the sovereign's command. While the title belonged by right to all sons and daughters of a monarch (even when they ceased to be children of the reigning sovereign), it was also often accorded to sons-in-law and male-line grandchildren of the sovereign (e.g. Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria , Infante Pedro Carlos of Spain and Portugal ), sometimes to other agnates of the ruling dynasty (e.g. Infante Enrique, Duke of Seville ), and to female-line relatives of the monarch (e.g
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Duke
A DUKE (male) ( British English : /djuːk/ or American English : /duːk/ ) or DUCHESS (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility , historically of highest rank below the monarch . The title comes from French _duc_, itself from the Latin _dux _, 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. The title dux survived in the Eastern Roman Empire where it was used in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy. During the Middle Ages the title (as _ Herzog _) signified first among the Germanic monarchies . Dukes were the rulers of the provinces and the superiors of the counts in the cities and later, in the feudal monarchies , the highest-ranking peers of the king. A duke may or may not be, _ipso facto_, a member of the nation's peerage : in the United Kingdom and Spain all dukes are/were also peers of the realm, in France some were and some were not, while the term is not applicable to dukedoms of other nations, even where an institution similar to the peerage (e.g., Grandeeship , Imperial Diet , Hungarian House of Magnates ) existed
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Fürst
_FüRST_ (German pronunciation: (_ listen ), female form FüRSTIN_, plural _FüRSTEN_; from Old High German _furisto_, "the first", a translation of the Latin
Latin
_princeps _) is a German word for a ruler and is also a princely title. _Fürsten_ were, since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, members of the highest nobility who ruled over states of the Holy Roman Empire and later its former territories, below the ruling _ Kaiser
Kaiser
_ (emperor ) or _König_ (king ). A Prince
Prince
of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was the reigning sovereign ruler of an Imperial State that held imperial immediacy in the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. The territory ruled is referred to in German as a _Fürstentum_ (principality ), the family dynasty referred to as a _Fürstenhaus_ (princely house), and the (non-reigning) descendants of a _Fürst_ are titled and referred to in German as _Prinz_ (prince ) or _Prinzessin_ (princess). The English language
English language
uses the term _prince_ for both concepts. Latin-based languages (French, Italian, Romanian, Spanish, Portuguese) also employ a single term, whereas Dutch as well as the Scandinavian and Slavic languages (Russian, Polish, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian, etc.) use separate terms similar to those used in German (see _knyaz _ for the latter)
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Marquess
A MARQUESS (UK : /ˈmɑːrkwɪs/ ; French : _MARQUIS_, ; Italian : _marchese_, Spanish : _marqués_, Portuguese : _marquês_) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in imperial China and Japan . In the German lands, a Margrave was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory (examples include the Margrave of Brandenburg , the Margrave of Baden and the Margrave of Bayreuth ), not simply a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe. German rulers did not confer the title of marquis; holders of marquisates in Central Europe were largely associated with the Italian and Spanish crowns. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 In the United Kingdom * 3 Marquesal titles in other European languages * 3.1 Baltic languages * 3.2 Finno-Ugric languages * 3.3 Germanic languages * 3.4 Romance languages * 3.5 Slavic languages * 3.6 Other languages * 4 Equivalent non-Western titles * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY A 17th-century engraving of a marquis in the robe worn during his creation ceremony. The word "marquess" entered the English language from the Old French _marchis_ ("ruler of a border area") in the late 13th or early 14th century
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Margrave
MARGRAVE was originally the medieval title for the military commander assigned to maintain the defense of one of the border provinces of the Holy Roman Empire or of a kingdom . That position became hereditary in certain feudal families in the Empire, and the title came to be borne by rulers of some Imperial principalities until the abolition of the Empire in 1806 (e.g., Margrave of Brandenburg , Margrave of Baden ). Thereafter, those domains were absorbed in larger realms or the titleholders adopted titles indicative of full sovereignty. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Rank * 3 Usage * 4 Translations * 5 Variations * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYEtymologically, the word _MARGRAVE_ (Latin: _marchio_ ca. 1551) is the English and French form of the German noble title _MARKGRAF_ (_Mark_ "march " + _ Graf _ " Count "), which also is semantically related to the English title MARCHER LORD . As a noun and hereditary title, _margrave_ was common to the languages of Europe, such as Spanish and Polish. A _Markgraf_ (Margrave) originally functioned as the military governor of a Carolingian _mark _, a medieval border province
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Landgrave
LANDGRAVE (Dutch : _landgraaf_, German : _Landgraf_; Swedish : _lantgreve_, French : _landgrave_; Latin : _comes magnus_, _comes patriae_, _comes provinciae_, _comes terrae_, _comes principalis_, _lantgravius_) was a noble title used in the Holy Roman Empire , and later on in its former territories. The German titles of _Landgraf_, _Markgraf_ ("margrave "), and _Pfalzgraf_ ("count palatine ") are in the same class of ranks as _ Herzog _ ("duke") and above the rank of a _ Graf _ ("count"). CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 Examples * 4 Related terms * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe English word LANDGRAVE is the equivalent of the German _LANDGRAF_, a compound of the words _Land_ and _ Graf _ (German: count). DESCRIPTIONThe title referred originally to a count who had imperial immediacy , or feudal duty owed directly to the Holy Roman Emperor. His jurisdiction stretched over a sometimes quite considerable territory, which was not subservient to an intermediate power, such as a Duke , a Bishop or Count Palatine . The title survived from the times of the Holy Roman Empire (first records in Lower Lotharingia from 1086 on: Henry III, Count of Louvain , as landgrave of Brabant ). By definition, a landgrave exercised sovereign rights. His decision-making power was comparable to that of a Duke
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Count Palatine
COUNT PALATINE is a high noble title, used to render several comital (of or relating to a count or earl) styles, in some cases also shortened to Palatine , which can have other meanings as well. CONTENTS* 1 Importance of a Count Palatine in Medieval Europe * 1.1 Comes palatinus * 1.2 Related terms * 2 Medieval social structure and development of the Count Palatine * 3 Merovingian and Carolingian Counts Palatine * 3.1 Robertians * 3.2 Counts Palatine of Champagne * 4 Counts Palatine of Bavaria * 5 Counts Palatine of Burgundy * 6 Counts Palatine of Lebanon * 7 Counts Palatine of Lotharingia * 8 Counts Palatine of Tübingen * 9 Counts Palatine of the Rhine * 10 Counts Palatine of Saxony * 11 Counts Palatine of Swabia * 12 Equivalents in other states * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Sources IMPORTANCE OF A COUNT PALATINE IN MEDIEVAL EUROPECOMES PALATINUSThis Latin title is the original, but also pre-feudal: it originate