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Prime Minister
A PRIME MINISTER is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government , often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system . In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state . In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system
Westminster system
, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch
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Directorial System
A DIRECTORIAL REPUBLIC is a country ruled by a college of several people who jointly exercise the powers of a head of state or a head of government . This system of government is in contrast both with presidential republics and parliamentary republics . In political history, the term DIRECTORY, in French directoire, is applied to high collegial institutions of state composed of members styled director. The most important of these by far was the Directory of 1795–1799 in France
France
. The system was inspired by the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 , which prominently featured a collegial 12-member Supreme Executive Council with a primus inter pares President. Variants of this form of government, based on the French model, were also established in the European regions conquered by France
France
during the French Revolutionary Wars
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Executive (government)
The EXECUTIVE is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state . The executive executes and enforces law . In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers , authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative , judicial ) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order . Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations . In the Westminster political system , the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy ), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy ), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Aut Simul Stabunt Aut Simul Cadent
The Latin brocard AUT SIMUL STABUNT AUT SIMUL CADENT (or SIMUL SIMUL for short), meaning they will either stand together, or fall together, is used in law to express those cases in which the end of a certain situation automatically brings upon the end of another one, and vice versa. The first use of this expression in the mass media, which made it known to the non-specialists, was in occasion of one of the first crises between fascist Italy and the Vatican concerning the Concordat . Pope Pius XI is believed to have pronounced the sentence to express the fact that challenging the Concordat would have swept away the whole Lateran treaty , reopening the Roman question
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Government
A GOVERNMENT is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state . In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature , executive , and judiciary . Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy . While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth
Earth
, as well as subsidiary organizations. Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy , timocracy , oligarchy , democracy and tyranny
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Legislature
A LEGISLATURE is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city . Legislatures form important parts of most governments ; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation . Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators . In a democracy , legislators are most commonly popularly elected , although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber
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Civil Service
The CIVIL SERVICE is a sector of government composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership. A CIVIL SERVANT or PUBLIC SERVANT is a person so employed in the public sector employed for a government department or agency. The extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown (national government) employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not. Many consider the study of service to be a part of the field of public administration . Workers in "non-departmental public bodies" (sometimes called "Quangos ") may also be classed as civil servants for the purpose of statistics and possibly for their terms and conditions. Collectively a state's civil servants form its civil service or public service
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Chairman
The CHAIRMAN (also CHAIRPERSON, CHAIRWOMAN or CHAIR) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board , a committee , or a deliberative assembly . The person holding the office is typically elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officer's duties often include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world and its spokesperson. In some organizations, this position is also called president (or other title), in others, where a board appoints a president (or other title), the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions
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Systems Of Government
A GOVERNMENT is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state . In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature , administration , and judiciary . Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy . While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth
Earth
, as well as subsidiary organizations. Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy , timocracy , oligarchy , democracy and tyranny
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Parliamentary Republic
A PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state , with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies
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Chief Executive (gubernatorial)
CHIEF EXECUTIVE is a term used for certain gubernatorial offices, expressing the nature of their job being analogous to a head of government. Commonly used to refer to Presidential powers given by the constitution
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Forms Of Government
A GOVERNMENT is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state . In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature , executive , and judiciary . Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy . While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth
Earth
, as well as subsidiary organizations. Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy , timocracy , oligarchy , democracy and tyranny
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Chief Minister
A CHIEF MINISTER is the elected head of government of a sub-national (e.g., constituent federal) entity. Examples include: Provinces Governor
Governor
of Federal states in Nepal
Nepal
; a state (and sometimes a union territory ) in India
India
; a territory of Australia
Australia
; provinces of Sri Lanka or Pakistan
Pakistan
; Philippine autonomous regions ; or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-governance. It is also used as the English version of the title given to the heads of governments of the Malay states without a monarchy. The title is also used in the Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
of the Isle of Man (since 1986), in Guernsey
Guernsey
(since 2004), and in Jersey
Jersey
(since 2005)
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President Of The Council Of State
The official title PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF STATE, or CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF STATE is used to describe the head of the states of Cuba
Cuba
, and formerly communist states in the East Germany
East Germany
, Poland
Poland
, Romania
Romania
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Vietnam
Vietnam

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