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Prime Minister
A PRIME MINISTER is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government , often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system . In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state . In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system , the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative (i.e. the monarch, president, or governor-general) usually holds a largely ceremonial position, although often with reserve powers . The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature . In some monarchies the monarch may also exercise executive powers (known as the royal prerogative ) that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament
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Executive (government)
The EXECUTIVE is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state . The executive executes and enforces law . In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers , authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative , judicial ) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order . Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations . In the Westminster political system , the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched. Members of the executive, called ministers , are also members of the legislature, and hence play an important part in both the writing and enforcing of law. In this context, the executive consists of a leader(s) of an office or multiple offices. Specifically, the top leadership roles of the executive branch may include: * head of state —often the supreme leader , the president or monarch , the chief public representative and living symbol of national unity. * head of government —often the _de facto _ leader, prime minister , overseeing the administration of all affairs of state
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Head Of State
A HEAD OF STATE (or CHIEF OF STATE) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state . Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers , the head of state may be a purely ceremonial figurehead with limited or no executive power or concurrently the head of government . In countries with parliamentary system , the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities and may not be empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Margrethe II of Denmark ). In countries where the head of state is also the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the actual highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch (e.g., the President of the United States ). Former French president Charles de Gaulle , while developing the current Constitution of France (1958), said the head of state should embody _l'esprit de la nation_ ("the spirit of the nation")
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Monarch
A MONARCH is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy . A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state , or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as _the throne_ or _the crown _) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication . If a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is often appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. Monarchs' actual powers vary from one monarchy to another and in different eras; on one extreme, they may be autocrats (absolute monarchy ) wielding genuine sovereignty; on the other they may be ceremonial heads of state who exercise little or no power or only reserve powers , with actual authority vested in a parliament or other body (constitutional monarchy ). A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously. For example, the monarchy of Canada
Canada
and the monarchy of the United Kingdom are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union
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Supreme Leader
A SUPREME LEADER typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state , organization or other such group who has been given or is able to exercise the most – or complete – authority over it. In a religion, this role is usually satisfied by a person deemed to be the representative or manifestation of a god or gods on Earth. In politics, a supreme leader usually has a cult of personality associated with them, such as below: * Adolf Hitler (_ Führer _) in Germany * Benito Mussolini (_ Duce _) in Italy * Emperor Hirohito (_ Tenno _) in Japan * Joseph Stalin (_Vozhd _) in the Soviet Union * The Supreme Leader of Iran * The Supreme Leader of North Korea * The Paramount leader of China * General Secretary of the Communist Party in Communist states There have been many dictators and political party leaders who have assumed such personal and/or political titles to evoke their supreme authority. World War II , for example, saw many fascist and other far right figures model their rule on Hitler's _Führer_ or Mussolini's _Duce_ personae. On the far left , several communist leaders adopted "Supreme"-styled titles and/ or followed Stalin's _Vozhd_ example
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President
In politics, PRESIDENT is a title given to leaders of republican states . In the modern world, it is a common title for the head of state in most republics. The functions exercised by a president vary according to the form of government. In parliamentary and semi-presidential republics, they are limited to those of the head of state, and are thus largely ceremonial. In presidential republics , the role of the president is more prominent, encompassing also (in most cases) the functions of the head of government . In authoritarian regimes, a dictator or leader of a one-party state may also be called a president, often charismatically
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President Of The Council Of State
The official title PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF STATE, or CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF STATE is used to describe the head of the states of Cuba , and formerly communist states in the East Germany , Poland , Romania , Bulgaria , Cambodia and Vietnam . * President of the Council of State of Republic of Cuba * President of the Council of State of Socialist Republic of Vietnam * Chairman of the State Council of German Democratic Republic * Chairman of the Council of State of Polish People\'s Republic * President of the State Council of Socialist Republic of Romania * Chairman of the State Council of People\'s Republic of Bulgaria * Chairman of the Council of State of People\'s Republic of Kampuchea _ This article about politics is a stub . You can help Wikipedia by expanding it ._ * v * t * e _ This government job-related article is a stub . You can help Wikipedia by expanding it ._ * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=President_of_the_Council_of_State additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Forms Of Government
A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled. In the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
, the word "government" is also used more narrowly to refer to the collective group of people that exercises executive authority in a state. This usage is analogous to what is called an "administration " in American English
American English
. Furthermore, especially in American English, the concepts of "the state" and "the government" may be used synonymously to refer to the person or group of people exercising authority over a politically organized territory. Finally, government is also sometimes used in English as a synonym for governance . In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislators , administrators , and arbitrators . Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. A form of government, or form of state governance, refers to the set of political systems and institutions that make up the organisation of a specific government. Government of any kind currently affects every human activity in many important ways. For this reason, political scientists generally argue that government should not be studied by itself; but should be studied along with anthropology , economics , environmentalism , history , philosophy , science and sociology
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Head Of Government
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state , a federated state , or a self-governing colony , (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet , a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state ", (e.g. as in article 7 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties , article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list), as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country. The authority of a head of government, such as a president, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature , varies greatly among sovereign states, depending largely on the particular makeup of the government that has been chosen, won, or evolved over time. In parliamentary systems , including constitutional monarchies , the head of government is the _de facto _ political leader of the government, and is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature
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Chancellor
CHANCELLOR (Latin : _cancellarius_) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the _cancellarii _ of Roman courts of justice—ushers, who sat at the _cancelli_ or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the audience. A chancellor's office is called a chancellery or chancery . The word is now used in the titles of many various officers in all kinds of settings (government, education, religion, etc.). Nowadays the term is most often used to describe: * The head of the government * A person in charge of foreign affairs * A person with duties related to justice * A person in charge of financial and economic issues * The head of a universityCONTENTS* 1 Head of government * 1.1 Austria * 1.2 Germany * 1.3 Switzerland * 2 Foreign minister * 3 Functions related to justice and the law * 4 Other * 4.1 Ecclesiastical * 4.2 Educational usage * 5 Historical uses * 6 See also * 7 References HEAD OF GOVERNMENTAUSTRIAThe Chancellor of Austria , also titled _Bundeskanzler_, is the head of government in Austria. Christian Kern is the current _Bundeskanzler_ of Austria. GERMANYThe CHANCELLOR OF GERMANY or _BUNDESKANZLER_ (official German title which means "FEDERAL CHANCELLOR"), is the title for the head of government in Germany
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Chief Executive (gubernatorial)
CHIEF EXECUTIVE is a term used for certain gubernatorial offices, expressing the nature of their job being analogous to a head of government. Commonly used to refer to Presidential powers given by the constitution
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Chief Minister
A CHIEF MINISTER is the elected head of government of a sub-national (e.g., constituent federal) entity. Examples include: Provinces Governor of Federal states in Nepal ; a state (and sometimes a union territory ) in India ; a territory of Australia ; provinces of Sri Lanka or Pakistan ; Philippine autonomous regions ; or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-governance. It is also used as the English version of the title given to the heads of governments of the Malay states without a monarchy. The title is also used in the Crown dependencies of the Isle of Man (since 1986), in Guernsey (since 2004), and in Jersey (since 2005)
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First Minister
A FIRST MINISTER is one of a variety of terms for the leader of a government cabinet , which is a term currently used to refer to the political leader of a devolved national government, such as the devolved administrations of Scotland , Wales , and Northern Ireland , or of a dependent territory. CONTENTS * 1 Canada * 2 Norway * 3 United Kingdom * 4 Other * 5 References CANADA Further information: Premier (Canada) In Canada , "_first ministers_" is a collective term that refers to all of the Canadian first ministers of the Crown , otherwise known as heads of government , including the Prime Minister of Canada and the provincial and territorial premiers . It is used in such formulae as "first ministers\' meetings ". In Newfoundland and Labrador , the Inuit self-governing region of Nunatsiavut provides for a first minister responsible to the Nunatsiavut Assembly. NORWAYThe head of government of Norway was called _first minister_ (Norwegian : _førstestatsråd_) between 1814 and 1873, while it was in personal union with Sweden . In 1893, 12 years prior to the dissolution of the union , it was changed to prime minister (_statsminister_)
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Premier
PREMIER is a title for the head of government in some countries, states and sub-national governments. A second in command to a premier is designated as a VICE-PREMIER or deputy premier . CONTENTS * 1 Examples by country * 2 By jurisdiction * 3 See also * 4 References EXAMPLES BY COUNTRYIn many nations, "premier" is used interchangeably with "prime minister ". In the People\'s Republic of China , "premier" is more common and official, but "prime minister" is still used (see Premier of the People\'s Republic of China ). In four of the British overseas territories ( Bermuda , the Cayman Islands , the Turks and Caicos Islands , and the British Virgin Islands ), the elected heads of government are styled as "Premier". In other overseas territories the equivalent post is styled as Chief Minister . "Premier" is also the title of the heads of government in sub-national entities , such as the provinces and territories of Canada , states of the Commonwealth of Australia , provinces of South Africa , the island of Nevis within the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis , and the nation of Niue . In some of these cases, the formal title remains "Prime Minister" but "Premier" is used to avoid confusion with the national leader. In these cases, care should be taken not to confuse the title of "premier" with "prime minister"
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President Of The Council Of Ministers
The PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS or CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS is the head of government of several states and supernational organizations
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Cabinet (government)
A CABINET is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch . They are usually called ministers , but in some jurisdictions are sometimes called secretaries . The supranational European Commission of the European Union
European Union
uniquely refers to its executive cabinet as a "college ", with its top public officials referred to as "commissioners ". The functions of a cabinet are varied: in some countries it is a collegial decision-making body with collective responsibility , while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government . In some countries, the cabinet is called "Council of Ministers" or "Government Council" or lesser known names such as "Federal Council" (in Switzerland), "Inner Council" or "High Council". These countries may differ in the way that the cabinet is used or established. In some countries, particularly those that use a parliamentary system (e.g., the UK ), the Cabinet collectively decides the government's direction, especially in regard to legislation passed by the parliament . In countries with a presidential system , such as the United States
United States
, the Cabinet does not function as a collective legislative influence; rather, their primary role is as an official advisory council to the head of government
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