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Prestressed Concrete
Prestressed concrete
Prestressed concrete
is a form of concrete used in construction which is "pre-stressed" by being placed under compression prior to supporting any loads beyond its own dead weight.[1][2]:3–5 [3] This compression is produced by the tensioning of high-strength "tendons" located within or adjacent to the concrete volume, and is done to improve the performance of the concrete in service.[4] Tendons may consist of single wires, multi-wire strands or threaded bars, and are most commonly made from high-tensile steels, carbon fiber or aramid fiber.[1]:52–59 The essence of prestressed concrete is that once the initial compression has been applied, the resulting material has the characteristics of high-strength concrete when subject to any subsequent compression forces, and of ductile high-strength steel when subject to tension forces
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Yield (engineering)
The yield point is the point on a stress–strain curve that indicates the limit of elastic behavior and the beginning of plastic behavior. Yielding means the start of breaking of fibers. Yield strength
Yield strength
or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins. Prior to the yield point the material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the applied stress is removed. Once the yield point is passed, some fraction of the deformation will be permanent and non-reversible. The yield point determines the limits of performance for mechanical components, since it represents the upper limit to forces that can be applied without permanent deformation
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Corrosion
Corrosion
Corrosion
is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide. It is the gradual destruction of materials (usually metals) by chemical and/or electrochemical reaction with their environment. Corrosion engineering is the field dedicated to controlling and stopping corrosion. In the most common use of the word, this means electrochemical oxidation of metal in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen or sulfur. Rusting, the formation of iron oxides, is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion. This type of damage typically produces oxide(s) or salt(s) of the original metal, and results in a distinctive orange colouration. Corrosion
Corrosion
can also occur in materials other than metals, such as ceramics or polymers, although in this context, the term "degradation" is more common
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Pipe (fluid Conveyance)
A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members. In common usage the words pipe and tube are usually interchangeable, but in industry and engineering, the terms are uniquely defined. Depending on the applicable standard to which it is manufactured, pipe is generally specified by a nominal diameter with a constant outside diameter (OD) and a schedule that defines the thickness. Tube is most often specified by the OD and wall thickness, but may be specified by any two of OD, inside diameter (ID), and wall thickness
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Wedge (mechanical Device)
A wedge is a triangular shaped tool, and is a portable inclined plane, and one of the six classical simple machines. It can be used to separate two objects or portions of an object, lift up an object, or hold an object in place. It functions by converting a force applied to its blunt end into forces perpendicular (normal) to its inclined surfaces. The mechanical advantage of a wedge is given by the ratio of the length of its slope to its width.[1][2] Although a short wedge with a wide angle may do a job faster, it requires more force than a long wedge with a narrow angle.Contents1 History 2 Use of a wedge 3 Blades and wedges 4 Examples for holding fast 5 Mechanical advantage 6 See also 7 ReferencesHistory[edit] Flint
Flint
hand axe found in WinchesterPerhaps the first example of a wedge is the hand axe, also see biface and Olorgesailie. Wedges have been around for thousands of years, they were first made of simple stone
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Screw Thread
A screw thread, often shortened to thread, is a helical structure used to convert between rotational and linear movement or force. A screw thread is a ridge wrapped around a cylinder or cone in the form of a helix, with the former being called a straight thread and the latter called a tapered thread. A screw thread is the essential feature of the screw as a simple machine and also as a fastener. The mechanical advantage of a screw thread depends on its lead, which is the linear distance the screw travels in one revolution.[1] In most applications, the lead of a screw thread is chosen so that friction is sufficient to prevent linear motion being converted to rotary, that is so the screw does not slip even when linear force is applied, as long as no external rotational force is present. This characteristic is essential to the vast majority of its uses
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Galvanised
Galvanization or galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting. The most common method is hot-dip galvanizing, in which parts are submerged in a bath of molten zinc.Contents1 Protective action 2 History and etymology 3 Methods 4 Eventual corrosion 5 Galvanized construction steel 6 Galvanized piping 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksProtective action[edit] Galvanizing protects the underlying iron or steel in the following main ways:The zinc coating, when intact, prevents corrosive substances from reaching the underlying steel or iron. The zinc serves as a sacrificial anode so that even if the coating is scratched, the exposed steel will still be protected by the remaining zinc.[clarification needed] The zinc protects iron by corroding first
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Grout
Grout
Grout
is a particularly fluid form of concrete used to fill gaps.[1] Grout
Grout
is generally a mixture of water, cement, and sand, and is employed in pressure grouting, embedding rebar in masonry walls, connecting sections of pre-cast concrete, filling voids, and sealing joints such as those between tiles. Some common uses for grout in the household include: filling in tiles of shower floors and kitchen tiles. It is often color tinted when it will remain visible, and sometimes includes fine gravel when being used to fill large spaces (such as the cores of concrete blocks)
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Grease (lubricant)
Grease is a semisolid lubricant. Grease generally consists of a soap emulsified with mineral or vegetable oil.[1] The characteristic feature of greases is that they possess a high initial viscosity, which upon the application of shear, drops to give the effect of an oil-lubricated bearing of approximately the same viscosity as the base oil used in the grease. This change in viscosity is called shear thinning. Grease is sometimes used to describe lubricating materials that are simply soft solids or high viscosity liquids, but these materials do not exhibit the shear-thinning properties characteristic of the classical grease. For example, petroleum jellies such as Vaseline
Vaseline
are not generally classified as greases. Greases are applied only to mechanisms that can be lubricated infrequently and where a lubricating oil would not stay in position. They also act as sealants to prevent ingress of water and incompressible materials
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Curvature
In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry. Intuitively, curvature is the amount by which a geometric object such as a surface deviates from being a flat plane, or a curve from being straight as in the case of a line, but this is defined in different ways depending on the context. There is a key distinction between extrinsic curvature, which is defined for objects embedded in another space (usually a Euclidean space) – in a way that relates to the radius of curvature of circles that touch the object – and intrinsic curvature, which is defined in terms of the lengths of curves within a Riemannian manifold. This article deals primarily with extrinsic curvature. Its canonical example is that of a circle, which has a curvature equal to the reciprocal of its radius everywhere. Smaller circles bend more sharply, and hence have higher curvature
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Reaction (physics)
As described by the third of Newton's laws of motion
Newton's laws of motion
of classical mechanics, all forces occur in pairs such that if one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts an equal and opposite reaction force on the first.[1][2] The third law is also more generally stated as: "To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts."[3] The attribution of which of the two forces is the action and which is the reaction is arbitrary
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In Situ
In situ
In situ
(/ɪn ˈsɪtjuː/ or /ɪn ˈsaɪtʃuː/ or /ɪn ˈsiːtuː/; often not italicized in English[1][2][3]) is a Latin
Latin
phrase that translates literally to "on site"[4] or "in position".[5] It means "locally", "on site", "on the p
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Structural Analysis
Structural analysis is the determination of the effects of loads on physical structures and their components. Structures subject to this type of analysis include all that must withstand loads, such as buildings, bridges, vehicles, machinery, furniture, attire, soil strata, prostheses and biological tissue. Structural analysis employs the fields of applied mechanics, materials science and applied mathematics to compute a structure's deformations, internal forces, stresses, support reactions, accelerations, and stability
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Compression Forces
In mechanics, compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions.[1] It is contrasted with tension or traction, the application of balanced outward ("pulling") forces; and with shearing forces, directed so as to displace layers of the material parallel to each other. The compressive strength of materials and structures is an important engineering consideration. In uniaxial compression, the forces are directed along one direction only, so that they act towards decreasing the object's length along that direction
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Polyethylene
Polyethylene
Polyethylene
or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC
IUPAC
name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic. The annual global production is around 80 million tonnes.[3] Its primary use is in packaging (plastic bags, plastic films, geomembranes, containers including bottles, etc.). Many kinds of polyethylene are known, with most having the chemical formula (C2H4)n
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Building
A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.[1] Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, land prices, ground conditions, specific uses, and aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures. Buildings serve several societal needs – primarily as shelter from weather, security, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the human habitat (a place of comfort and safety) and the outside (a place that at times may be harsh and harmful). Ever since the first cave paintings, buildings have also become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression
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