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Presidential System
A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch . This head of government is in most cases also the head of state , which is called president . In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment . The title "president " has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President
President
of the Continental Congress in the early United States
United States
, prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government
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International Relations Theory
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY is the study of international relations (IR) from a theoretical perspective. It attempts to provide a conceptual framework upon which international relations can be analyzed. Ole Holsti describes international relations theories as acting like pairs of coloured sunglasses that allow the wearer to see only salient events relevant to the theory; e.g., an adherent of realism may completely disregard an event that a constructivist might pounce upon as crucial, and vice versa. The three most prominent theories are realism , liberalism and constructivism . International relations
International relations
theories can be divided into "positivist /rationalist " theories which focus on a principally state-level analysis, and "post-positivist /reflectivist " ones which incorporate expanded meanings of security, ranging from class, to gender, to postcolonial security
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Foreign Policy
The approaches are strategically employed to interact with other countries. The study of such strategies is called foreign policy analysis . In recent times, due to the deepening level of globalization and transnational activities, the states will also have to interact with non-state actors . The aforementioned interaction is evaluated and monitored in attempts to maximize benefits of multilateral international cooperation. Since the national interests are paramount, foreign policies are designed by the government through high-level decision making processes. National interests accomplishment can occur as a result of peaceful cooperation with other nations, or through exploitation. Usually, creating foreign policy is the job of the head of government and the foreign minister (or equivalent). In some countries the legislature also has considerable effects
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Politics By Country
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science: POLITICS – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions . Politics
Politics
is the art or science of running governmental or state affairs (including behavior within civil governments ), institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate , academic , and religious segments of society. POLITICAL SCIENCE – the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior
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Public Administration
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function." Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies." Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct"
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Bureaucracy
BUREAUCRACY (/bjuːˈrɒkrəsi/ ) is a term that refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution. The public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy. Since being coined, the word bureaucracy has developed negative connotations. Bureaucracies have been criticized as being inefficient, convoluted, or too inflexible to individuals. The dehumanizing effects of excessive bureaucracy became a major theme in the work of German-language writer Franz Kafka and are central to his novels The Trial and The Castle . The elimination of unnecessary bureaucracy is a key concept in modern managerial theory and has been an issue in some political campaigns
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Street-level Bureaucracy
STREET-LEVEL BUREAUCRACY is the subset of a public agency or government institution where the civil servants work who have direct contact with members of the general public. Street-level civil servants carry out and/or enforce the actions required by a government's laws and public policies , in areas ranging from safety and security to education and social services . A few examples include police officers , border guards , social workers and public school teachers . These civil servants have direct contact with members of the general public, in contrast with civil servants who do policy analysis or economic analysis, who do not meet the public. Street-level bureaucrats act as liaisons between government policy-makers and citizens and these civil servants implement policy decisions made by senior officials in the public service and/or by elected officials
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Adhocracy
ADHOCRACY is a flexible, adaptable and informal form of organization that is defined by a lack of formal structure. It operates in an opposite fashion to a bureaucracy . The term was coined by Warren Bennis in his 1968 book The Temporary Society, later popularized in 1970 by Alvin Toffler
Alvin Toffler
in Future Shock , and has since become often used in the theory of management of organizations (particularly online organizations). The concept has been further developed by academics such as Henry Mintzberg . Adhocracy is characterized by an adaptive, creative and flexible integrative behavior based on non-permanence and spontaneity. It is believed that these characteristics allow adhocracy to respond faster than traditional bureaucratic organizations while being more open to new ideas
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Comparative Politics
COMPARATIVE POLITICS is a field in political science , characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method . In other words, comparative politics is the study of the domestic politics, political institutions, and conflicts of countries. It often involves comparisons among countries and through time within single countries, emphasizing key patterns of similarity and difference. Arend Lijphart argues that comparative politics does not have a substantive focus in itself, but rather a methodological one: it focuses on "the how but does not specify the what of the analysis." In other words, comparative politics is not defined by the object of its study, but rather by the method it applies to study political phenomena
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Political Psychology
POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to understanding politics , politicians and political behavior from a psychological perspective. The relationship between politics and psychology is considered bi-directional, with psychology being used as a lens for understanding politics and politics being used as a lens for understanding psychology. As an interdisciplinary field, political psychology borrows from a wide range of other disciplines, including: anthropology , sociology , international relations , economics , philosophy , media , journalism and history . Political psychology aims to understand interdependent relationships between individuals and contexts that are influenced by beliefs, motivation, perception, cognition, information processing, learning strategies, socialization and attitude formation
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Political Science
POLITICAL SCIENCE is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts and political behaviour. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics which is commonly thought of as determining of the distribution of power and resources. Political scientists "see themselves engaged in revealing the relationships underlying political events and conditions, and from these revelations they attempt to construct general principles about the way the world of politics works." Political science comprises numerous subfields, including comparative politics , political economy , international relations , political theory , public administration , public policy , and political methodology . Furthermore, political science is related to, and draws upon, the fields of economics , law , sociology , history , philosophy , geography , psychology , and anthropology
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List Of Political Scientists
This is a list of NOTABLE POLITICAL SCIENTISTS. See the list of political theorists for those who study political theory. See also political science . This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries
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International Relations
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (IR) or INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, depending on academic institution, is either a field of political science , an interdisciplinary academic field similar to global studies , or an entirely independent academic discipline in which students take a variety of internationally focused courses in social science and humanities disciplines. In both cases, the field studies relationships between political entities (polities ) such as states , sovereign states , empires , inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international non-governmental organizations (INs), other non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs), and the wider world-systems produced by this interaction. International relations
International relations
is an academic and a public policy field, and so can be positive and normative , because it analyses and formulates the foreign policy of a given state
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Policy
A POLICY is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by the board of directors or senior governance body within an organization, where procedures or protocols are developed and adopted by senior executive officers . Policies can assist in both subjective and objective decision making . Policies to assist in subjective decision making usually assist senior management with decisions that must be based on the relative merits of a number of factors, and as a result are often hard to test objectively, e.g. work-life balance policy. In contrast policies to assist in objective decision making are usually operational in nature and can be objectively tested, e.g. password policy. The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, as well as individuals
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Public Policy
PUBLIC POLICY is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs . The foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations. Further substrates include both judicial interpretations and regulations which are generally authorized by legislation. Public policy is considered strong when it solves problems efficiently and effectively, serves justice, supports governmental institutions and policies, and encourages active citizenship
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Separation Of Powers
The SEPARATION OF POWERS, often imprecisely and metonymically used interchangeably with the TRIAS POLITICA principle, is a model for the governance of a state (or who controls the state). Under this model, the state is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with the powers associated with the other branches. The typical division is into three branches: a legislature , an executive , and a judiciary , which is the trias politica model. It can be contrasted with the fusion of powers in some parliamentary systems where the executive and legislature (and sometimes parts of the judiciary) are unified. Separation of powers, therefore, refers to the division of responsibilities into distinct branches to limit any one branch from exercising the core functions of another. The intent is to prevent the concentration of power and provide for checks and balances
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