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Presidential System
A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch . This head of government is in most cases also the head of state , which is called _president _. In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment . The title "president " has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President of the Continental Congress in the early United States , prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government. A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system , where the head of government is elected to power through the legislative . There is an intermediary system called semi-presidentialism . Countries that feature a presidential or semi-presidential system of government are not the exclusive users of the title of president. Heads of state of parliamentary republics , largely ceremonial in most cases, are called presidents. Dictators or leaders of one-party states , popularly elected or not, are also often called presidents
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Prime Minister
A PRIME MINISTER is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government , often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system . In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state . In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system , the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative (i.e. the monarch, president, or governor-general) usually holds a largely ceremonial position, although often with reserve powers . The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature . In some monarchies the monarch may also exercise executive powers (known as the royal prerogative ) that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament
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Semi-presidential
A SEMI-PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state . A semi-presidential system differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state , who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead , and from the presidential system in that the cabinet , although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature , which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence . While the German Weimar Republic (1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger , both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic (established in 1958). CONTENTS * 1 Subtypes * 2 Division of powers * 3 Cohabitation * 4 Republics with a semi-presidential system of government * 5 See also * 6 Notes and references * 7 External links SUBTYPESThere are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism: premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism. Under the PREMIER-PRESIDENTIAL system, the prime minister and cabinet are exclusively accountable to parliament
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Politics
POLITICS (from Greek: Politiká: _Politika_, definition "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state . Furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community (this is usually a hierarchically organized population) as well as the interrelationship(s) between communities. A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting or forcing one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws , and exercising force , including warfare against adversaries. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments , companies and institutions up to sovereign states , to the international level . It is very often said that politics is about power. A political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. History of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato 's _Republic _, Aristotle 's _ Politics _ and the works of Confucius
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Index Of Politics Articles
This is a list of political topics, including political science terms, political philosophies, political issues, etc. POLITICS is the process by which groups of people make decisions. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within civil governments , politics is observed in all human group interactions, including corporate , academic , and religious institutions. Politics consists of "social relations involving authority or power" and refers to the regulation of a political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy . POLITICAL SCIENCE (also known as political studies) is the study of political behavior and examines the acquisition and application of power . Related areas of study include political philosophy , which seeks a rationale for politics and an ethic of public behavior, and public administration , which examines the practices of governance
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Politics By Country
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science: POLITICS – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions . Politics is the art or science of running governmental or state affairs (including behavior within civil governments ), institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate , academic , and religious segments of society. POLITICAL SCIENCE – the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. CONTENTS * 1 Fields of study of political science * 2 Related disciplines * 3 Political theory * 4 Elections * 5 Political parties * 6 Political strategies and tactics * 7 Political corruption * 8 Government * 9 Political philosophies * 10 Governments of the world * 11 Political issues * 12 Politics by region * 12.1 Foreign relations by region * 12.2 Political parties by region * 13 History of politics * 14 Political scholars * 15 Influential literature * 16 See also * 17 Further reading * 18 References * 19 External links FIELDS OF STUDY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE * Area studies * Coalition studies * Comparative politics * Development studies * Domestic politics (e.g
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Politics Of Country Subdivisions
This list summarises the country subdivisions which have a separate article on their politics. Countries where significant powers delegated to federal units or to devolved governments and where the political system is multi-party democracy are more likely to have articles on the politics of their subdivisions. Entities listed in the article List of countries are shows in the article Politics of present-day nations and states
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Political Economy
POLITICAL ECONOMY is a term used for studying production and trade , and their relations with law, custom , and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth . _Political economy_ originated in moral philosophy . It was developed in the 18th century as the study of the economies of states, or _polities _, hence the term _political_ economy. In the late 19th century, the term _economics _ came to replace _political economy_, coinciding with the publication of an influential textbook by Alfred Marshall in 1890. Earlier, William Stanley Jevons , a proponent of mathematical methods applied to the subject, advocated _economics_ for brevity and with the hope of the term becoming "the recognised name of a science." Today, _political economy_, where it is not used as a synonym for economics, may refer to very different things, including Marxian analysis, applied public choice approaches emanating from the Chicago school and the Virginia school , or simply the advice given by economists to the government or public on general economic policy or on specific proposals. A rapidly growing mainstream literature from the 1970s has expanded beyond the model of economic policy in which planners maximize utility of a representative individual toward examining how political forces affect the choice of economic policies , especially as to distributional conflicts and political institutions
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Political History
POLITICAL HISTORY is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders. It is interrelated to other fields of history, especially diplomatic history , as well as constitutional history and public history. Political history studies the organization and operation of power in large societies. By focusing on the elites in power, on their impact on society, on popular response, and on the relationships with the elites in other social history , which focuses predominantly on the actions and lifestyles of ordinary people, or people\'s history , which is historical work from the perspective of the common people. In two decades from 1975 to 1995, the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history rose from 31% to 41%, and the proportion of political historians fell from 40% to 30%. In the history departments of British and Irish universities in 2014, of the 3410 faculty members reporting, 878 (26%) identified themselves with social history , and political history came next at 841 (25%) faculty members
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Political History Of The World
The political history of the world is the history of the various political entities created by the human race throughout their existence and the way these states define their borders. Throughout history, political entities have expanded from basic systems of self-governance and monarchy to the complex democratic and totalitarian systems that exist today. In parallel, political systems have expanded from vaguely defined frontier-type boundaries , to the national definite boundaries existing today. CONTENTS * 1 Ancient history * 2 Middle ages * 3 Early modern era * 4 Modern era * 5 References ANCIENT HISTORYIn ancient history, civilizations did not have definite boundaries as states have today, and their borders could be more accurately described as frontiers . Early dynastic Sumer , and early dynastic Egypt were the first civilizations to define their borders . Moreover, for the past 200,000 years and up to the twentieth century, many people have lived in non-state societies. These range from relatively egalitarian bands and tribes to complex and highly stratified chiefdoms . The first states of sorts were those of early dynastic Sumer and early dynastic Egypt, which arose from the Uruk period and Predynastic Egypt respectively at approximately 3000BCE
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Political Philosophy
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY, or POLITICAL THEORY, is the study of topics such as politics , liberty , justice , property , rights , law , and the enforcement of a legal code by authority : what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate , what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. In a vernacular sense, the term "political philosophy" often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics, synonymous to the term "political ideology ". Political philosophy
Political philosophy
is considered by some to be a sub-discipline of political science ; however, the name generally attributed to this form of political enquiry is political theory, a discipline which has a closer methodology to the theoretical fields in the social sciences (like economic theory ) than to philosophical argumentation (like that of moral philosophy or aesthetics ). CONTENTS* 1 History
History
* 1.1 Ancient traditions * 1.1.1 Ancient China
China
* 1.1.2 Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
* 1.1.3 Ancient India * 1.2 Medieval
Medieval
Christianity * 1.2.1 Saint Augustine * 1.2.2 St
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Political System
A POLITICAL SYSTEM is a system of politics and government . It is usually compared to the legal system , economic system , cultural system , and other social systems . However, this is a very simplified view of a much more complex system of categories involving the questions of who should have authority and what the government's influence on its people and economy should be. CONTENTS * 1 Anthropological forms * 2 Political parties * 3 Sociology * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links ANTHROPOLOGICAL FORMSAnthropologists generally recognize four kinds of political systems, two of which are uncentralized and two of which are centralized. * Uncentralized systems * Band society * Small family group, no larger than an extended family or clan; it has been defined as consisting of no more than 30 to 50 individuals. * A band can cease to exist if only a small group walks out.* Tribe * Generally larger, consisting of many families. Tribes have more social institutions, such as a chief or elders. * More permanent than bands
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Anarchy
ANARCHY is the condition of a society , entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy . The word originally meant leaderlessness , but in 1840 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
adopted the term in his treatise _ What Is Property? _ to refer to a new political philosophy : anarchism , which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations . In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government . It can also designate a nation (or anywhere on earth that is inhabited) that has no system of government or central rule
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City-state
A CITY-STATE is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome , Athens
Athens
, Carthage
Carthage
, and the Italian city-states during the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Today only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Singapore , Monaco
Monaco
, and Vatican City
Vatican City
. City states are also sometimes called micro-states which however also includes other configurations of very small countries. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, and therefore are sometimes also cited as modern city-states. Namely, Qatar
Qatar
, Brunei
Brunei
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Bahrain
Bahrain
, and Malta
Malta
, which each have an urban center comprising a significant proportion of the population, though, all have several distinct settlements and a designated or de facto capital city
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Democracy
DEMOCRACY (Greek : δημοκρατία, _dēmokratía_ literally "rule of the people"), in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament . Democracy is sometimes referred to as "rule of the majority". Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes. The uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy, which makes all forces struggle repeatedly for the realization of their interests, being the devolution of power from a group of people to a set of rules. Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is generally considered to have originated in city states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic , where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity . The English word dates to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents
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