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Precipitation
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.[2] The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, graupel and hail. Precipitation
Precipitation
occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates". Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation
Precipitation
forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud
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Intertropical Convergence Zone
The Intertropical Convergence Zone
Intertropical Convergence Zone
(ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge. The ITCZ was originally identified from the 1920s to the 1940s as the "Intertropical Front" ("ITF"), but after the recognition in the 1940s and 1950s of the significance of wind field convergence in tropical weather production, the term ITCZ was then applied.[1] When it lies near the Equator, it is called the near-equatorial trough. Where the ITCZ is drawn into and merges with a monsoonal circulation, it is sometimes referred to as a monsoon trough, a usage more common in Australia and parts of Asia
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Clime
The climes (singular clime; also clima, plural climata, from Greek κλίμα klima, plural κλίματα klimata, meaning "inclination" or "slope"[1]) in classical Greco-Roman geography
Greco-Roman geography
and astronomy were the divisions of the inhabited portion of the spherical Earth by geographic latitude.[2] Starting with Aristotle
Aristotle
(Meteorology 2.5,362a32), the Earth was divided into five zones, assuming two frigid climes (the arctic and antarctic) around the poles, an uninhabitable torrid clime near the equator, and two temperate climes between the frigid and the torrid ones.[3] Different lists of climata were in use in Hellenistic and Roman time. Claudius Ptolemy
Ptolemy
was the first ancient scientist known to have devised the so-called system of seven climes (Almagest 2.12) which, due to his authority, became one of the canonical elements of late antique, medieval European and Arab geography
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Condensation
Condensation
Condensation
is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation. The word most often refers to the water cycle.[1] It can also be defined as the change in the state of water vapour to liquid water when in contact with a liquid or solid surface or cloud condensation nuclei within the atmosphere
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Monsoon Trough
The monsoon trough is a portion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone,[1][2] as depicted by a line on a weather map showing the locations of minimum sea level pressure,[1] and as such, is a convergence zone between the wind patterns of the southern and northern hemispheres. Westerly monsoon winds lie in its equatorward portion while easterly trade winds exist poleward of the trough.[3] Right along its axis, heavy rains can be found which usher in the peak of a location's respective rainy season. As it passes poleward of a location, hot and dry conditions develop. The monsoon trough plays a role in creating many of the world's rainforests. The term "monsoon trough" is most commonly used in monsoonal regions of the Western Pacific such as Asia and Australia. The migration of the ITCZ/monsoon trough into a landmass heralds the beginning of the annual rainy season during summer months
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Planet
Shown in order from the Sun
Sun
and in true color. Sizes are not to scale.A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant thatis massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.[a][1][2]The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, astrology, science, mythology, and religion. Several planets in the Solar System
Solar System
can be seen with the naked eye. These were regarded by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of deities. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
(IAU) officially adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System
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Gravity
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another, including objects ranging from atoms and photons, to planets and stars. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy (including light) cause gravitation and are under the influence of it. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, and the Moon's gravity causes the ocean tides. The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe
Universe
caused it to begin coalescing, forming stars – and for the stars to group together into galaxies – so gravity is responsible for many of the large scale structures in the Universe
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Arcus Cloud
An arcus cloud is a low, horizontal cloud formation, usually appearing as an accessory cloud to a cumulonimbus. Roll clouds and shelf clouds are the two main types of arcus. Arcus clouds most frequently form along the leading edge or "gust fronts" of thunderstorm outflow; some of the most dramatic arcus formations mark the gust fronts of derecho-producing convective systems. Roll clouds also may arise in the absence of thunderstorms, forming along the shallow cold air currents of some sea breeze boundaries and cold fronts.Contents1 Types1.1 Shelf cloud 1.2 Roll cloud2 See also 3 References 4 External linksTypes[edit] Shelf cloud[edit]A time-lapse photography of shelf cloud just before a thunderstorm in Pondicherry, Puducherry, IndiaA shelf cloud over Enschede, NetherlandsA shelf cloud is a low, horizontal, wedge-shaped arcus cloud
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Mars
Mars
Mars
is the fourth planet from the Sun
Sun
and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System
Solar System
after Mercury. In English, Mars
Mars
carries a name of the Roman god of war, and is often referred to as the "Red Planet"[14][15] because the reddish iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance that is distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye.[16] Mars
Mars
is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon
Moon
and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars
Mars
are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons
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Savannah
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses.[1][2][3] Savannas maintain an open canopy despite a high tree density.[4] It is often believed that savannas feature widely spaced, scattered trees. However, in many savannas, tree densities are higher and trees are more regularly spaced than in forests.[5][6][7][8] The South American savanna types cerrado sensu stricto and cerrado dense typically have densities of trees similar to or higher than that found in South American tropical forests,[5][7][8] with savanna ranging from 800–3300 trees per hectare (trees/ha) and adjacent forests with 800–2000 trees/ha
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Köppen Climate Classification
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen
Wladimir Köppen
in 1884,[2][3] with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936.[4][5] Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.[6][7] The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980)
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Mist
Mist
Mist
is a phenomenon caused by small droplets of water suspended in air. Physically, it is an example of a dispersion. It is most commonly seen where warm, moist air meets sudden cooling, such as in exhaled air in the winter, or when throwing water onto the hot stove of a sauna. It can be created artificially with aerosol canisters if the humidity and temperature conditions are right. It can also occur as part of natural weather, when humid air cools rapidly, for example when the air comes into contact with surfaces that are much cooler than the air. The formation of mist, as of other suspensions, is greatly aided by the presence of nucleation sites on which the suspended water phase can congeal
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Earth
Earth
Earth
is the third planet from the Sun
Sun
and the only object in the Universe
Universe
known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth
Earth
formed over 4.5 billion years ago.[24][25][26] Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun
Sun
and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth
Earth
year
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Cyclone
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.[1][2] Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure.[3][4] The largest low-pressure systems are polar vortices and extratropical cyclones of the largest scale (the synoptic scale). Warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale.[5] Mesocyclones, tornadoes and dust devils lie within the smaller mesoscale.[6] Upper level cyclones can exist without the presence of a surface low, and can pinch off from the base of the tropical upper tropospheric trough during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere
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Stationary Front
A stationary front is a pair of air masses, neither of which is strong enough to replace the other. On a weather map, this is shown by an inter-playing series of blue spikes pointing one direction and red domes pointing the other.[1] They tend to remain essentially in the same area for extended periods of time, and waves sometimes propagate along the frontal boundary. A wide variety of weather can be found along a stationary front, but usually clouds, prolonged precipitation, and storm trains are found there. When there is a lot of water vapor in the warmer air mass, significant amounts of rain or freezing rain can occur.[2] Stationary fronts will either dissipate after several days or devolve into shear lines, but can change into a cold or warm front if conditions aloft change
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Windward
Windward (/ˈwɪndwərd/) is the direction upwind from the point of reference, alternatively the direction from which the wind is coming. Leeward (/ˈliːwərd, ˈljuːərd/) is the direction downwind (or downward) from the point of reference. The leeward region of mountains generally remains dry as compared to the windward. The side of a ship that is towards the leeward is its lee side. If the vessel is heeling under the pressure of the wind, this will be the "lower side". During the age of sail, the term weather was used as a synonym for windward in some contexts, as in the weather gage.Contents1 Nautical and naval1.1 Naval warfare2 Meteorological significance 3 The terms upwind and downwind 4 See also 5 ReferencesNautical and naval[edit] Main article: Sailing Windward and leeward
Windward and leeward
directions are important factors (points of sail) to consider when sailing a sailing ship
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