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Precipitate
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution. When the reaction occurs in a liquid solution, the solid formed is called the 'precipitate'. The chemical that causes the solid to form is called the 'precipitant'. Without sufficient force of gravity (settling) to bring the solid particles together, the precipitate remains in suspension. After sedimentation, especially when using a centrifuge to press it into a compact mass, the precipitate may be referred to as a 'pellet'. Precipitation can be used as a medium. The precipitate-free liquid remaining above the solid is called the 'supernate' or 'supernatant'. Powders derived from precipitation have also historically been known as 'flowers'. When the solid appears in the form of cellulose fibers which have been through chemical processing, the process is often referred to as regeneration. Sometimes the formation of a precipitate indicates the occurrence of a chemical reaction
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Iron
Iron
Iron
is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust
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Potassium Chloride
Potassium
Potassium
chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine . It is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance. The solid dissolves readily in water and its solutions have a salt-like taste. KCl is used as a fertilizer,[6] in medicine, in scientific applications, and in food processing. In a few states of the United States it is used to cause cardiac arrest as the third drug in the "three drug cocktail" for executions by lethal injection
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Acetonitrile
Acetonitrile
Acetonitrile
is the chemical compound with the formula CH 3CN. This colourless liquid is the simplest organic nitrile (hydrogen cyanide is a simpler nitrile, but the cyanide anion is not classed as organic). It is produced mainly as a byproduct of acrylonitrile manufacture. It is used as a polar aprotic solvent in organic synthesis and in the purification of butadiene.[5] In the laboratory, it is used as a medium-polarity solvent that is miscible with water and a range of organic solvents, but not saturated hydrocarbons. It has a convenient liquid range and a high dielectric constant of 38.8. With a dipole moment of 3.92 D,[6] acetonitrile dissolves a wide range of ionic and nonpolar compounds and is useful as a mobile phase in HPLC and LC–MS
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Ethanol Precipitation
Ethanol
Ethanol
precipitation is a method used to purify and/or concentrate RNA, DNA, and polysaccharides such as pectin and xyloglucan from aqueous solutions by adding ethanol as an antisolvent.Contents1 DNA
DNA
precipitation1.1 Theory 1.2 Practice2 See also 3 References 4 External links DNA
DNA
precipitation[edit] Theory[edit]The first hydration shell of a sodium ion dissolved in water DNA
DNA
is polar due to its highly charged phosphate backbone
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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Metallurgy
Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is used to separate metals from their ore . Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. The production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, and the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys. Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is distinguished from the craft of metalworking, although metalworking relies on metallurgy, as medicine relies on medical science, for technical advancement
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Solid Solution
Note 1: The definition “crystal containing a second constituent which fits into and is distributed in the lattice of the host crystal” given in refs.,[1][2] is not general and, thus, is not recommended. Note 2: The expression is to be used to describe a solid phase containing more than one substance when, for convenience, one (or more) of the substances, called the solvent, is treated differently from the other substances, called solutes. Note 3: One or several of the components can be macromolecules
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Solid Solution Strengthening
Solid solution
Solid solution
strengthening is a type of alloying that can be used to improve the strength of a pure metal.[1] The technique works by adding atoms of one element (the alloying element) to the crystalline lattice of another element (the base metal), forming a solid solution. The local nonuniformity in the lattice due to the alloying element makes plastic deformation more difficult by impeding dislocation motion. In contrast, alloying beyond the solubility limit can form a second phase, leading to strengthening via other mechanisms (e.g. the precipitation of intermetallic compounds).Contents1 Types 2 Mechanism 3 Governing equations 4 Implications 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTypes[edit] Depending on the size of the alloying element, a substitutional solid solution or an interstitial solid solution can form
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Solubility Product
Solubility
Solubility
equilibrium is a type of dynamic equilibrium that exists when a chemical compound in the solid state is in chemical equilibrium with a solution of that compound. The solid may dissolve unchanged, with dissociation or with chemical reaction with another constituent of the solvent, such as acid or alkali
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Silver Nitrate
Silver
Silver
nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula AgNO 3. This compound is a versatile precursor to many other silver compounds, such as those used in photography. It is far less sensitive to light than the halides. It was once called lunar caustic because silver was called luna by the ancient alchemists, who believed that silver was associated with the moon.[8] In solid silver nitrate, the silver ions are three-coordinated in a trigonal planar arrangement.[5]Contents1 Discovery 2 Synthesis 3 Reactions 4 Uses4.1 Precursor to other silver compounds 4.2 Halide abstraction 4.3 Organic synthesis 4.4 Biology5 Medicine5.1 Disinfection 5.2 Against warts6 Safety 7 References 8 External linksDiscovery[edit] Albertus Magnus, in the 13th century, documented the ability of nitric acid to separate gold and silver by dissolving the silver
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Silver Chloride
insoluble in alcohol, dilute acids. Magnetic susceptibility (χ)−49.0·10−6 cm3/mol Refractive index
Refractive index
(nD)2.071Structure Crystal
Crystal
structurehaliteThermochemistryStd molar entropy (So298)96 J·mol−1·K−1[1]Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfHo298)−127 kJ·mol−1[1]HazardsSafety data sheet Fischer Scientific, Salt Lake MetalsNFPA 7040 2 0Related compoundsOther anionssilver(I) fluoride, silver bromide, silver iodideExcept where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).N verify (what is YN ?)Infobox references Silver
Silver
chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl. This white crystalline solid is well known for its low solubility in water (this behavior being reminiscent of the chlorides of Tl+ and Pb2+)
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Crystallization
Crystallization
Crystallization
is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal. Some of the ways by which crystals form are precipitating from a solution, melting, or more rarely deposition directly from a gas. Attributes of the resulting crystal depend largely on factors such as temperature, air pressure, and in the case of liquid crystals, time of fluid evaporation. Crystallization
Crystallization
occurs in two major steps. The first is nucleation, the appearance of a crystalline phase from either a supercooled liquid or a supersaturated solvent. The second step is known as crystal growth, which is the increase in the size of particles and leads to a crystal state
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Dissociation (chemistry)
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner. For instance, when an acid dissolves in water, a covalent bond between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom is broken by heterolytic fission, which gives a proton (H+) and a negative ion
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Ions
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Ionic Equation
A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.[1] The coefficients next to the symbols and formulae of entities are the absolute values of the stoichiometric numbers. The first chemical equation was diagrammed by Jean Beguin
Jean Beguin
in 1615.[2]Contents1 Formation of chemical reaction 2 Common symbols 3 Balancing chemical equations3.1 Matrix Method4 Ionic equations 5 ReferencesFormation of chemical reaction A chemical equation consists of the chemical formulas of the reactants (the starting substances) and the chemical formula of the products (substances formed in the chemical reaction)
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