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Pre-Roman Iron Age In Northern Europe
The archaeology of Northern Europe
Northern Europe
studies the prehistory of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and the adjacent North European Plain, roughly corresponding to the territories of modern Sweden, Norway, Denmark, northern Germany, Poland
Poland
and the Netherlands. The region entered the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
around the 7th millennium BCE. The transition to the Neolithic
Neolithic
is characterized by the Funnelbeaker culture in the 4th millennium BCE. The Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
is marked by the arrival of the Corded Ware culture, possibly the first influence in the region of Indo-European expansion. The Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age
proper begins roughly one millennium later, around 1500 BCE
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Northern Europe
Northern Europe
Europe
is the general term for the geographical region in Europe
Europe
that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Nations usually included within this region are Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania, and occasionally Ireland, Britain, northern Germany, northern Belarus
Belarus
and northwest Russia. Narrower definitions may be based on other geographical factors such as climate and ecology. A broader definition would include the area north of the Alps
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Megalith
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word "megalithic" describes structures made of such large stones without the use of mortar or concrete, representing periods of prehistory characterised by such constructions. For later periods, the term monolith, with an overlapping meaning, is more likely to be used. The word "megalith" comes from the Ancient Greek "μέγας" (transl. mégas meaning "great") and "λίθος" (transl. líthos meaning "stone"). Megalith
Megalith
also denotes an item consisting of rock(s) hewn in definite shapes for special purposes.[1][2][3] It has been used to describe buildings built by people from many parts of the world living in many different periods
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Pre-Roman Iron Age
The archaeology of Northern Europe
Northern Europe
studies the prehistory of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and the adjacent North European Plain, roughly corresponding to the territories of modern Sweden, Norway, Denmark, northern Germany, Poland
Poland
and the Netherlands. The region entered the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
around the 7th millennium BCE. The transition to the Neolithic
Neolithic
is characterized by the Funnelbeaker culture in the 4th millennium BCE. The Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
is marked by the arrival of the Corded Ware culture, possibly the first influence in the region of Indo-European expansion. The Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age
proper begins roughly one millennium later, around 1500 BCE
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Roman Iron Age
The archaeology of Northern Europe
Northern Europe
studies the prehistory of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and the adjacent North European Plain, roughly corresponding to the territories of modern Sweden, Norway, Denmark, northern Germany, Poland
Poland
and the Netherlands. The region entered the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
around the 7th millennium BCE. The transition to the Neolithic
Neolithic
is characterized by the Funnelbeaker culture in the 4th millennium BCE. The Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
is marked by the arrival of the Corded Ware culture, possibly the first influence in the region of Indo-European expansion. The Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age
proper begins roughly one millennium later, around 1500 BCE
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Germanic Iron Age
The archaeology of Northern Europe
Northern Europe
studies the prehistory of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and the adjacent North European Plain, roughly corresponding to the territories of modern Sweden, Norway, Denmark, northern Germany, Poland
Poland
and the Netherlands. The region entered the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
around the 7th millennium BCE. The transition to the Neolithic
Neolithic
is characterized by the Funnelbeaker culture in the 4th millennium BCE. The Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
is marked by the arrival of the Corded Ware culture, possibly the first influence in the region of Indo-European expansion. The Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age
proper begins roughly one millennium later, around 1500 BCE
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Viking Age
The Viking
Viking
Age (c. 800AD-c. 1050) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.[1] It is the period of history when Scandinavian Norsemen
Norsemen
explored Europe
Europe
by its seas and rivers for trade, raids, colonization, and conquest. In this period, the Norsemen
Norsemen
settled in Norse Greenland, Newfoundland, and present-day Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Normandy, Scotland, England, Ireland, Isle of Man, the Netherlands, Germany, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey. Viking
Viking
travellers and colonists were seen at many points in history as brutal raiders
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6th Millennium BCE
The 6th millennium BC spanned the years 6000 through 5001 BC. During this time, agriculture spread from the Balkans
Balkans
to Italy
Italy
and Eastern Europe, and also from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
to Egypt. World population
World population
was essentially stable at numbers ranging between approximately 5 and 7 million.Contents1 Events 2 Environmental changes 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Cultural landmarks 5 ReferencesEvents[edit]Byzantine Calendar illustrating 1 September 5509 BC (the calendar is from the 12th century CE).Yangshao cultureA massive volcanic landslide off Mount Etna, Sicily, caused a megatsunami that devastated the eastern Mediterranean coastline on the continents of Asia, Africa
Africa
and Europe.[1] c
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Nøstvet And Lihult Cultures
The Nøstvet culture (ca 6200 BC-3200 BC) and the Lihult culture are two very similar Mesolithic
Mesolithic
cultures in Scandinavian prehistory derived from the earlier Fosna-Hensbacka cultures. They are so varied and vaguely defined that they are rather a tradition than an archaeological culture. The Nøstvet culture appeared around the Oslofjord
Oslofjord
and along the Norwegian coast up to Trøndelag, whereas the Lihult culture is found in western coastal Sweden. Sometimes the Sandarna culture appears as the name of an intermediary form between the Swedish Hensbacka and Lihult cultures. This name comes from a settlement near Gothenburg (approximately 7000 BC–5000 BC). The Nøstvet people lived on open settlements. They used honed axes and microliths of various rocks, such as quartz, quartzite and flint. They lived primarily of hunting various animals such as seafowl and marine mammals, in addition to fishing and gathering
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Kongemose Culture
PaleolithicLower Paleolithic Late Stone AgeHomo Control of fire Stone toolsMiddle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic Late Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dogEpipaleolithic MesolithicMicroliths, Bow, CanoeNatufian Khiamian Tahunian Heavy Neolithic Shepherd Neolithic Trihedral Neolithic Pre- Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicNeolithic Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution, Domestication Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicPottery↓ Chalcolithicv t eThe Kongemose culture (Kongemosekulturen) was a mesolithic hunter-gatherer culture in southern Scandinavia
Scandinavia
ca. 6000 BC–5200 BC and the origin of the Ertebølle culture. It was preceded by the Maglemosian culture
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Ertebølle Culture
The Ertebølle culture
Ertebølle culture
(ca 5300 BC – 3950 BC) (Danish pronunciation: [ˈæɐ̯dəˌbølə]) is the name of a hunter-gatherer and fisher, pottery-making culture dating to the end of the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
period. The culture was concentrated in Southern Scandinavia, but genetically linked to strongly related cultures in Northern Germany
Germany
and the Northern Netherlands. It is named after the type site, a location in the small village of Ertebølle on Limfjorden in Danish Jutland. In the 1890s, the National Museum of Denmark excavated heaps of oyster shells there, mixed with mussels, snails, bones and bone, antler and flint artifacts, which were evaluated as kitchen middens (Danish køkkenmødding), or refuse dumps. Accordingly, the culture is less commonly named the Kitchen Midden
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Atlantic (period)
The Atlantic in palaeoclimatology was the warmest and moistest Blytt-Sernander period, pollen zone and chronozone of Holocene northern Europe. The climate was generally warmer than today. It was preceded by the Boreal, with a climate similar to today’s, and was followed by the Subboreal, a transition to the modern. Because it was the warmest period of the Holocene, the Atlantic is often referenced more directly as the Holocene
Holocene
climatic optimum, or just climatic optimum.Contents1 Subdividing the Atlantic 2 Dating2.1 Beginning of the Atlantic period 2.2 End of the Atlantic period3 Description 4 Flora 5 Fauna 6 Human cultures 7 Notes 8 Bibliography 9 See also 10 External linksSubdividing the Atlantic[edit] The Atlantic is equivalent to Pollen Zone VII. Sometimes a Pre-atlantic or early Atlantic is distinguished, on the basis of an early dividing cold snap
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Neolithic Revolution
The Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution, Neolithic
Neolithic
Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.[1] These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with plants to learn how they grew and developed.[2] This new knowledge led to the domestication of plants.[2][3] Archaeological data indicates that the domestication of various types of plants and animals happened in separate locations worldwide, starting in the geological epoch of the Holocene[4] around 12,500 years ago.[5] It was the world's first historically verifiable revolution in agriculture
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Vychegda River
Vychegda (Russian: Вычегда, Komi: Эжва, Ežva) is a river in the European part of Russia, tributary to the Northern Dvina. Its length is about 1,100 kilometres (680 mi). Its source is approximately 310 kilometres (190 mi) west of the northern Ural Mountains. It flows roughly in western direction, through Komi Republic and Arkhangelsk Oblast. The largest city along the Vychegda is Syktyvkar, the capital of Komi Republic. The Viled, the Yarenga, and the Vym are among its main tributaries. The Vychegda flows into the Northern Dvina
Northern Dvina
in Kotlas
Kotlas
(Arkhangelsk Oblast). The river basin of the Vychegda comprises vast areas in Arkhangelsk Oblast and in the Komi Republic, as well as less extended areas in Kirov Oblast
Kirov Oblast
and Perm Krai. About 800 kilometres (500 mi) of the Vychegda is navigable
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History
—George Santayana History
History
(from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation")[2] is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.[3][4] Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events
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Komi Republic
The Komi Republic
Komi Republic
(Russian: Респу́блика Ко́ми, tr. Respúblika Kómi; Komi: Коми Республика, translit. Komi Respublika) is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(a republic). Its capital is the city of Syktyvkar
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