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Practical
PRAGMATISM is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870. Its origins are often attributed to the philosophers William James
William James
, John Dewey
John Dewey
, and Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce
. Peirce later described it in his pragmatic maxim : "Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception. Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object." Pragmatism considers thought an instrument or tool for prediction, problem solving and action, and rejects the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality. Pragmatists contend that most philosophical topics—such as the nature of knowledge, language, concepts, meaning, belief, and science—are all best viewed in terms of their practical uses and successes
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Western Philosophy
WESTERN PHILOSOPHY or EUROPEAN PHILOSOPHY is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world . Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture , beginning with Hellenic (i.e. Greek) philosophy of the Pre-Socratics such as Thales (c. 624 – c. 546 BC) and Pythagoras (c. 570 – c. 495 BC), and eventually covering a large area of the globe. The word _philosophy_ itself originated from the Hellenic: _philosophia_ (φιλοσοφία), literally, "the love of wisdom" (φιλεῖν _philein_, "to love" and σοφία _sophia _, "wisdom"). The scope of philosophy in the ancient understanding, and the writings of (at least some of) the ancient philosophers , were _all_ intellectual endeavors
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Ancient Philosophy
This page lists some links to ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY. In Western philosophy , the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire marked the ending of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of Medieval philosophy , whereas in Eastern philosophy , the spread of Islam through the Arab Empire marked the end of Old Iranian philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of early Islamic philosophy
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Contemporary Philosophy
CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY is the present period in the history of Western philosophy beginning at the end of the 19th century with the professionalization of the discipline and the rise of analytic and continental philosophy . The phrase "contemporary philosophy" is a piece of technical terminology in philosophy that refers to a specific period in the history of Western philosophy . However, the phrase is often confused with modern philosophy (which refers to an earlier period in Western philosophy), postmodern philosophy (which refers to continental philosophers' criticisms of modern philosophy), and with a non-technical use of the phrase referring to any recent philosophic work
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Platonism
PLATONISM, rendered as a proper noun , is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it. In narrower usage, PLATONISM, rendered as a common noun (with a lower case "p" subject to sentence case ), refers to the philosophy that affirms the existence of abstract objects , which are asserted to "exist" in a "third realm" distinct both from the sensible external world and from the internal world of consciousness, and is the opposite of nominalism . Lower case "platonists" need not accept any of the doctrines of Plato. In a narrower sense, the term might indicate the doctrine of Platonic realism . The central concept of Platonism, a distinction essential to the Theory of Forms , is the distinction between the reality which is perceptible but unintelligible, and the reality which is imperceptible but intelligible
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Islamic Philosophy
In the religion of ISLAM, two words are sometimes translated as PHILOSOPHY -- _falsafa_ (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics and physics); and _Kalam_ (literally "speech"), which refers to a kind of philosophy based on interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism . Islamic philosophy has also been described as the systematic investigation of problems connected with life , the universe , ethics , society , and so on as conducted in the Muslim world . Early Islamic philosophy began in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE ) and lasted until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE)
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Lists Of Philosophers
TOPICS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z PHILOSOPHERS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z * Article * Category * Glossary * Outline * Portal
Portal
The alphabetical LIST OF PHILOSOPHERS is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. To look up a philosopher you know the name of, click on the first letter of his or her last name. To find philosophers by core area, field, major philosophical tradition, ethnicity, or time periods, see the subheadings further below
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List Of Years In Philosophy
The following entries cover events related to the study of philosophy which occurred in the listed year
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Aesthetics
AESTHETICS (/ɛsˈθɛtɪks/ or /iːsˈθɛtɪks/ ; also spelled æSTHETICS and ESTHETICS) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art , beauty , and taste , with the creation and appreciation of beauty. In its more technically epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional values , sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature ". In modern English , the term aesthetic can also refer to a set of principles underlying the works of a particular art movement or theory: one speaks, for example, of the Cubist aesthetic
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Epistemology
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e EPISTEMOLOGY (/ᵻˌpɪstᵻˈmɒlədʒi/ (_ listen ); from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē_, meaning 'knowledge', and λόγος_, logos _, meaning 'logical discourse') is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge . Epistemology
Epistemology
studies the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Much of the debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth , belief , and justification , (2) various problems of skepticism , (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification. The term 'Epistemology' was first used by Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier in 1854
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Social Philosophy
SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations. Social philosophers place new emphasis on understanding the social contexts for political, legal, moral, and cultural questions, and to the development of novel theoretical frameworks, from social ontology to care ethics to cosmopolitan theories of democracy, human rights, gender equity and global justice. CONTENTS * 1 Subdisciplines * 2 Relevant issues * 3 Social philosophers * 4 See also * 5 References SUBDISCIPLINESThere is often a considerable overlap between the questions addressed by social philosophy and ethics or value theory . Other forms of social philosophy include political philosophy and jurisprudence , which are largely concerned with the societies of state and government and their functioning
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Index Of Philosophy
TOPICS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z PHILOSOPHERS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z * Article * Category * Glossary * Outline * Portal
Portal
The alphabetical INDEX OF PHILOSOPHY is so large it had to be broken up into several pages.