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Power-to-weight Ratio
Power-to-weight ratio (or specific power or power-to-mass ratio) is a calculation commonly applied to engines and mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another. Power-to-weight ratio is a measurement of actual performance of any engine or power source. It is also used as a measurement of performance of a vehicle as a whole, with the engine's power output being divided by the weight (or mass) of the vehicle, to give a metric that is independent of the vehicle's size. Power-to-weight is often quoted by manufacturers at the peak value, but the actual value may vary in use and variations will affect performance. The inverse of power-to-weight, weight-to-power ratio (power loading) is a calculation commonly applied to aircraft, cars, and vehicles in general, to enable the comparison of one vehicle's performance to another
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Engine
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.[1][2] Heat
Heat
engines burn a fuel to create heat which is then used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air; and clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy
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Straight-14 Engine
A straight-14 engine or inline-14 engine is a fourteen-cylinder internal combustion engine with all fourteen cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase. A straight-14 is a very long engine, and therefore only suitable for marine installations in large ships. Examples[edit] The only engine of this type known to have been built is a member of the Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C family. It is the world's most powerful combustion engine and is mounted in Emma Mærsk, the world's largest container ship. It is of two-stroke diesel engine configuration. The engine became well known due to photos taken at the Aioi Works in Japan, which subsequently spread through blogs. The 14-cylinder version of this modular engine produces 80,080 kilowatts (107,390 hp) and displaces 25,340 litres (1,546,000 cubic inches), with a 960 mm (38 in) cylinder bore and 2,500 mm (98 in) piston stroke
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Dot Product
In mathematics, the dot product or scalar product[note 1] is an algebraic operation that takes two equal-length sequences of numbers (usually coordinate vectors) and returns a single number. In Euclidean geometry, the dot product of the Cartesian coordinates
Cartesian coordinates
of two vectors is widely used and often called inner product (or rarely projection product); see also inner product space. Algebraically, the dot product is the sum of the products of the corresponding entries of the two sequences of numbers. Geometrically, it is the product of the Euclidean magnitudes of the two vectors and the cosine of the angle between them. These definitions are equivalent when using Cartesian coordinates. In modern geometry, Euclidean spaces are often defined by using vector spaces
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Sensible Heat
Sensible heat
Sensible heat
is heat exchanged by a body or thermodynamic system in which the exchange of heat changes the temperature of the body or system, and some macroscopic variables of the body or system, but leaves unchanged certain other macroscopic variables of the body or system, such as volume or pressure.[1][2][3][4] Usage[edit]ThermodynamicsThe classical Carnot heat engineBranchesClassical Statistical Chemical Quantum thermodynamicsEquilibrium / Non-equilibriumLawsZeroth First Second ThirdSystemsStateEquation of state Ideal gas Real gas
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Latent Heat
Latent heat
Latent heat
is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process — usually a first-order phase transition. Latent heat
Latent heat
can be understood as heat energy in hidden form which is supplied or extracted to change the state of a substance without changing its temperature. Examples are latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization involved in phase changes, i.e. a substance condensing or vaporizing at a specified temperature and pressure.[1][2] The term was introduced around 1762 by British chemist Joseph Black. It is derived from the Latin latere (to lie hidden)
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Phase (matter)
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.[1][2]:86[3]:3 Examples of physical properties include density, index of refraction, magnetization and chemical composition. A simple description is that a phase is a region of material that is chemically uniform, physically distinct, and (often) mechanically separable. In a system consisting of ice and water in a glass jar, the ice cubes are one phase, the water is a second phase, and the humid air is a third phase over the ice and water. The glass of the jar is another separate phase
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Heat Engine
In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.[1][2] It does this by bringing a working substance from a higher state temperature to a lower state temperature. A heat source generates thermal energy that brings the working substance to the high temperature state. The working substance generates work in the working body of the engine while transferring heat to the colder sink until it reaches a low temperature state. During this process some of the thermal energy is converted into work by exploiting the properties of the working substance. The working substance can be any system with a non-zero heat capacity, but it usually is a gas or liquid. During this process, a lot of heat is lost to the surroundings and so cannot be converted to work. In general an engine converts energy to mechanical work
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Work (physics)
W = F ⋅ s W = τ θPart of a series of articles aboutClassical mechanics F → = m a → displaystyle vec F =m vec a Second
Second
law of motionHistory TimelineBranchesApplied Celestial Continuum Dynamics Kinematics Kinetics Statics StatisticalFundamentalsAcceleration Angular momentum Couple D'Alembert's principle Energykinetic potentialForce Frame of reference Inertial frame of reference Impulse Inertia / Moment of inertia MassMechanical power Mechanical workMoment Mom
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Heat Pump
A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a source of heat to what is called a "heat sink". Heat
Heat
pumps move thermal energy in the opposite direction of spontaneous heat transfer, by absorbing heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one. A heat pump uses a small amount of external power to accomplish the work of transferring energy from the heat source to the heat sink.[1] While air conditioners and freezers are familiar examples of heat pumps, the term "heat pump" is more general and applies to many HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) devices used for space heating or space cooling. When a heat pump is used for heating, it employs the same basic refrigeration-type cycle used by an air conditioner or a refrigerator, but in the opposite direction – releasing heat into the conditioned space rather than the surrounding environment
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Heat Engine
In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.[1][2] It does this by bringing a working substance from a higher state temperature to a lower state temperature. A heat source generates thermal energy that brings the working substance to the high temperature state. The working substance generates work in the working body of the engine while transferring heat to the colder sink until it reaches a low temperature state. During this process some of the thermal energy is converted into work by exploiting the properties of the working substance. The working substance can be any system with a non-zero heat capacity, but it usually is a gas or liquid. During this process, a lot of heat is lost to the surroundings and so cannot be converted to work. In general an engine converts energy to mechanical work
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Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C
The Wärtsilä
Wärtsilä
RT-flex96C is a two-stroke turbocharged low-speed diesel engine designed by the Finnish manufacturer Wärtsilä. It is designed for large container ships that run on heavy fuel oil. Its largest 14-cylinder version is 13.5 metres (44 ft) high, 26.59 m (87 ft) long, weighs over 2,300 tons, and produces 80,080 kilowatts (107,390 hp). The engine is the largest reciprocating engine in the world. The 14-cylinder version was put into service in September 2006 aboard the Emma Mærsk. The design is like the older RTA96C engine, with common rail technology instead of traditional camshaft, chain gear, fuel pumps and hydraulic actuators. All this provides the maximum performance at low revolutions per minute (rpm), lower fuel consumption and lower harmful emissions. The engine has crosshead bearings so that the always-vertical piston rod allows a tight seal under the piston
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Emma Mærsk
Emma Mærsk
Emma Mærsk
is the first container ship in the E-class of eight owned by the A. P. Moller-Maersk Group. When launched in 2006 she was the largest container ship ever built, and in 2010 she and her seven sister ships were among the longest container ships. Officially, she is able to carry around 11,000 twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) or 14,770 TEU depending on definition. In May 2010, her sister ship Ebba Mærsk set a record of 15,011 TEU in Tanger-Med, Tangiers.[3]Contents1 History 2 Capacity 3 Engine and hull 4 Sailing schedules 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Emma Mærsk
Emma Mærsk
was built at the Odense Steel Shipyard
Odense Steel Shipyard
in Denmark
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Vehicle
A vehicle (from Latin: vehiculum[1]) is a mobile machine that transports people or cargo. Typical vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor vehicles (motorcycles, cars, trucks, buses), railed vehicles (trains, trams), watercraft (ships, boats), aircraft and spacecraft.[2] Land vehicles are classified broadly by what is used to apply steering and drive forces against the ground: wheeled, tracked, railed or skied. ISO 3833-1977 is the standard, also internationally used in legislation, for road vehicles types, terms and definitions.[3]Contents1 History 2 Most popular vehicles 3 Locomotion3.1 Energy source 3.2 Motors and engines 3.3 Converting energy to work 3.4 Friction4 Control4.1 Steering 4.2 Stopping5 Legislation5.1 European Union 5.2 Licensing 5.3 Registration 5.4 Mandatory safety equipment6 Right-of-way 7 Safety 8 See also 9 ReferencesHistory[edit]This article may require cleanup to meet's quality standards
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Container Ship
Container ships (sometimes spelled containerships) are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. They are a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport and now carry most seagoing non-bulk cargo. Container ship
Container ship
capacity is measured in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU). Typical loads are a mix of 20-foot and 40-foot (2-TEU) ISO-standard containers, with the latter predominant. Today, about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container, and the largest modern container ships can carry over 21,000 TEU (e.g., OOCL
OOCL
Hong Kong)
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Suzuki
Suzuki Motor Corporation
Suzuki Motor Corporation
(Japanese: スズキ株式会社, Hepburn: Suzuki
Suzuki
Kabushiki-Kaisha)[3] is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Minami-ku, Hamamatsu,[4] that manufactures automobiles, four-wheel drive vehicles, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), outboard marine engines, wheelchairs and a variety of other small internal combustion engines. In 2014, Suzuki
Suzuki
was the ninth biggest automaker by production worldwide.[5] Suzuki
Suzuki
has over 45,000 employees and has 35 production facilities in 23 countries, and 133 distributors in 192 countries
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