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Power Generation
Electricity generation
Electricity generation
is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utilities in the electric power industry, it is the first stage in the delivery of electricity to end users, the other stages being transmission, distribution, energy storage and recovery, using pumped-storage methods. A characteristic of electricity is that it is not a primary energy freely present in nature in remarkable amounts and it must be produced. Production is carried out in power plants. Electricity is most often generated at a power station by electromechanical generators, primarily driven by heat engines fueled by combustion or nuclear fission but also by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and wind
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Turbo Generator
A turbo generator is the combination of a turbine directly connected to an electric generator for the generation of electric power. Large steam-powered turbo generators provide the majority of the world's electricity and are also used by steam-powered turbo-electric ships.[1] Smaller turbo-generators with gas turbines are often used as auxiliary power units
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Oil
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally "fat loving"). Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are usually flammable and surface active. The general definition of oil includes classes of chemical compounds that may be otherwise unrelated in structure, properties, and uses. Oils may be animal, vegetable, or petrochemical in origin, and may be volatile or non-volatile.[1] They are used for food (e.g., olive oil), fuel (e.g., heating oil), medical purposes (e.g., mineral oil), lubrication (e.g. motor oil), and the manufacture of many types of paints, plastics, and other materials
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Telegraph
Telegraphy
Telegraphy
(from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy
Telegraphy
requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals, beacons, reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy. The advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy
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Steam Engine
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam
Steam
engines are external combustion engines,[2] where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In the cycle, water is heated and changes into steam in a boiler operating at a high pressure. When expanded using pistons or turbines mechanical work is done. The reduced-pressure steam is then exhausted to the atmosphere, or condensed and pumped back into the boiler. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either complete steam plants (including boilers etc.) such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine
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Pearl Street Station
Pearl Street Station
Pearl Street Station
was the first commercial central power plant in the US. It was located at 255-257 Pearl Street in Manhattan
Manhattan
on a site measuring 50 by 100 feet (15 by 30 m),[1] just south of Fulton Street and fired by coal. It began with one direct current generator, and it started generating electricity on September 4, 1882, serving an initial load of 400 lamps at 82 customers.[2] By 1884, Pearl Street Station was serving 508 customers with 10,164 lamps.[1] The station was built by the Edison Illuminating Company, which was headed by Thomas Edison. The station was originally powered by custom-made Porter-Allen high-speed steam engines designed to provide 175 horsepower at 700 rpm,[3] but these proved to be unreliable with their sensitive governors
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DC Current
Direct current
Direct current
(DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. A battery is a good example of a DC power supply. Direct current
Direct current
may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. The electric current flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC). A term formerly used for this type of current was galvanic current.[1] The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.[2][3] Direct current
Direct current
may be obtained from an alternating current supply by use of a rectifier, which contains electronic elements (usually) or electromechanical elements (historically) that allow current to flow only in one direction
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Pearl Street (Manhattan)
Pearl Street is a street in the Financial District in Lower Manhattan, running northeast from Battery Park
Battery Park
to the Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge
with an interruption at Fulton Street, where Pearl Street's alignment west of Fulton Street shifts one block south of its alignment east of Fulton Street, then turning west and terminating at Centre Street.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The history of Pearl Street dates back to the early 1600s, when the Dutch first settled on the southern tip of Manhattan. Its name is an English translation of the Dutch Parelstraat (written as Paerlstraet around 1660). This street, visible on the Castello Plan
Castello Plan
along the eastern shore of New Amsterdam, was named for the many oysters found in the river. During the period of British rule, Pearl Street was known as Great Queen Street
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New York City
Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island)Historic colonies New Netherland Province of New YorkSettled 1624Consolidated 1898Named for James, Duke of YorkGovernment[2] • Type Mayor–Council • Body New York City
New York City
Council • Mayor
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Coal
Coal
Coal
is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal
Coal
is composed primarily of carbon, along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.[1] Coal
Coal
is a fossil fuel that forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite. This involves biological and geological processes
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Nuclear Power
2012 World [civil] electricity generation by fuels (IEA, 2014)[4]   Coal/Peat (40.4%)   Natural Gas (22.5%)   Hydro (16.2%)    Nuclear fission
Nuclear fission
(10.9%)   Oil (5.0%)   Others (Renew.) (5.0%) Nuclear power
Nuclear power
is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy[5] to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant. The term includes nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion. Presently, the nuclear fission of elements in the actinide series of the periodic table produce the vast majority of nuclear energy in the direct service of humankind, with nuclear decay processes, primarily in the form of geothermal energy, and radioisotope thermoelectric generators, in niche uses making up the rest
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Wind Generator
A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy. Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of vertical and horizontal axis types. The smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging for auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs. Slightly larger turbines can be used for making contributions to a domestic power supply while selling unused power back to the utility supplier via the electrical grid. Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, are becoming an increasingly important source of renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. Wind was shown to have the "lowest relative greenhouse gas emissions, the least water consumption demands and..
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Solar Energy
Solar energy
Solar energy
is radiant light and heat from the Sun
Sun
that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.[1][2] It is an important source of renewable energy and its technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on how they capture and distribute solar energy or convert it into solar power. Active solar
Active solar
techniques include the use of photovoltaic systems, concentrated solar power and solar water heating to harness the energy
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Electric Power
Electric power
Electric power
is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second. Electric power
Electric power
is usually produced by electric generators, but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries. It is usually supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry through an electric power grid. Electric power
Electric power
is usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours
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Tidal Power
Tidal power
Tidal power
or tidal energy is a form of hydropower that converts the energy obtained from tides into useful forms of power, mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal energy has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than the wind and the sun. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal energy has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recent[when? clarification needed] technological developments and improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g
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Triboelectric Effect
The triboelectric effect (also known as triboelectric charging) is a type of contact electrification on which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into frictional contact with a different material.[citation needed] Rubbing glass with fur, or a plastic comb through the hair, can build up triboelectricity. Most everyday static electricity is triboelectric. The polarity and strength of the charges produced differ according to the materials, surface roughness, temperature, strain, and other properties. The triboelectric effect is not very predictable, and only broad generalizations can be made. Amber, for example, can acquire an electric charge by contact and separation (or friction) with a material like wool. This property was first recorded by Thales
Thales
of Miletus. The word "electricity" is derived from William Gilbert's initial coinage, "electra", which originates in the Greek word for amber, ēlektron
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