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Power Density
Power density (or volume power density or volume specific power) is the amount of power (time rate of energy transfer) per unit volume. In energy transformers including batteries, fuel cells, motors, etc., and also power supply units or similar, power density refers to a volume. It is then also called volume power density, which is expressed as W/m3. Volume
Volume
power density is sometimes an important consideration where space is constrained. In reciprocating internal combustion engines, power density—power per swept volume or brake horsepower per cubic centimeter —is an important metric. This is based on the internal capacity of the engine, not its external size. Power densities of common materials[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Power-to-weight Ratio
Power-to-weight ratio (or specific power or power-to-mass ratio) is a calculation commonly applied to engines and mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another. Power-to-weight ratio is a measurement of actual performance of any engine or power source. It is also used as a measurement of performance of a vehicle as a whole, with the engine's power output being divided by the weight (or mass) of the vehicle, to give a metric that is independent of the vehicle's size. Power-to-weight is often quoted by manufacturers at the peak value, but the actual value may vary in use and variations will affect performance. The inverse of power-to-weight, weight-to-power ratio (power loading) is a calculation commonly applied to aircraft, cars, and vehicles in general, to enable the comparison of one vehicle's performance to another
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Surface Power Density
In physics and engineering, surface power density or sometimes simply specific power[1] is power per unit area.Contents1 Applications 2 Background2.1 Far field3 ReferencesApplications[edit]The intensity of electromagnetic radiation can be expressed in W/m2. An example of such a quantity is the solar constant. Wind turbines are often compared using a specific power measuring watts per square meter of turbine disk area, which is π r 2 displaystyle pi r^ 2 , where r is the length of a blade. This measure is also commonly used for solar panels, at least for typical applications. Radiance is surface power density per unit of solid angle (steradians) in a specific direction. Spectral radiance is radiance per unit of frequency (Hertz) at a specific frequency.Background[edit] As an electromagnetic wave travels through space, energy is transferred from the source to other objects (receivers)
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Specific Absorption Rate
Specific absorption rate (SAR) is a measure of the rate at which energy is absorbed by the human body when exposed to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. It can also refer to absorption of other forms of energy by tissue, including ultrasound.[1] It is defined as the power absorbed per mass of tissue and has units of watts per kilogram (W/kg).[2][3] SAR is usually averaged either over the whole body, or over a small sample volume (typically 1 g or 10 g of tissue)
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Specific Energy
Specific energy is energy per unit mass. (It is also sometimes called "energy density," though "energy density" more precisely means energy per unit volume.) It is used to quantify, for example, stored heat or other thermodynamic properties of substances such as specific internal energy, specific enthalpy, specific Gibbs free energy, and specific Helmholtz free energy. It may also be used for the kinetic energy or potential energy of a body
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Alpha Decay
Alpha decay
Alpha decay
or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two. An alpha particle is identical to the nucleus of a helium-4 atom, which consists of two protons and two neutrons. It has a charge of +2e and a mass of 4u. For example, uranium-238 decays to form thorium-234. Alpha particles have a charge +2, but as a nuclear equation describes a nuclear reaction without considering the electrons – a convention that does not imply that the nuclei necessarily occur in neutral atoms – the charge is not usually shown. Alpha decay
Alpha decay
typically occurs in the heaviest nuclides
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Swept Volume
Engine displacement is the swept volume of all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from top dead centre (TDC) to bottom dead centre (BDC). It is commonly specified in cubic centimetres (cc or cm3), litres (l), or cubic inches (CID). Engine displacement does not include the total volume of the combustion chamber.Contents1 Definition 2 Governmental regulations 3 Automotive model names 4 See also 5 ReferencesDefinition[edit] Engine displacement is determined from the bore and stroke of an engine's cylinders
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Internal Combustion Engine
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle
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Reciprocating Engine
A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is typically a heat engine (although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion. This article describes the common features of all types. The main types are: the internal combustion engine, used extensively in motor vehicles; the steam engine, the mainstay of the Industrial Revolution; and the niche application Stirling engine
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Power Supply
A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the correct voltage, current, and frequency to power the load. As a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are separate standalone pieces of equipment, while others are built into the load appliances that they power. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices
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Fuel Cell
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidising agent.[1] Fuel cells are different from batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen (usually from air) to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy comes from chemicals already present in the battery. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as fuel and oxygen are supplied. The first fuel cells were invented in 1838. The first commercial use of fuel cells came more than a century later in NASA
NASA
space programs to generate power for satellites and space capsules. Since then, fuel cells have been used in many other applications. Fuel cells are used for primary and backup power for commercial, industrial and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas
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Energy Transformation
Energy
Energy
transformation, also termed as energy conversion, is the process of changing energy from one of its forms into another. In physics, energy is a quantity that provides the capacity to perform many actions—think of lifting or warming an object. In addition to being convertible, energy is transferable to a different location or object, but it cannot be created or destroyed. Energy
Energy
in many of its forms may be used in natural processes, or to provide some service to society such as heating, refrigeration, lightening or performing mechanical work to operate machines
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Energy Transfer
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.[note 1] Energy
Energy
is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational, electric or magnetic), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related
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Volume
Volume
Volume
is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.[1] Volume
Volume
is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the cubic metre. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container; i. e., the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straight-edged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas
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SI Base Unit
The International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units can be derived. The SI base units and their physical quantities are the metre for measurement of length, the kilogram for mass, the second for time, the ampere for electric current, the kelvin for temperature, the candela for luminous intensity, and the mole for amount of substance. The SI base units form a set of mutually independent dimensions as required by dimensional analysis commonly employed in science and technology. The names and symbols of SI base units are written in lowercase, except the symbols of those named after a person, which are written with an initial capital letter
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