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Post-punk
POST-PUNK (originally called NEW MUSICK ) is a broad type of rock music that emerged from the punk movement of the 1970s, in which artists departed from the simplicity and traditionalism of punk rock to adopt a variety of avant-garde sensibilities. Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches , artists experimented diversely with sources such as electronic music and free jazz ; black dance styles like funk , disco , and dub ; novel recording and production techniques ; and ideas from art and politics, including critical theory , modernist art and literature . Communities that produced independent record labels , visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines developed around these musical scenes. The early post-punk vanguard was represented by groups such as Siouxsie and the Banshees , Wire , Magazine , Gang of Four , Public Image Ltd , the Pop Group , Joy Division , Throbbing Gristle , the Slits , Cabaret Voltaire , the Cure , the Fall , Au Pairs , Talking Heads and Pere Ubu . The movement was closely related to the development of ancillary genres such as gothic rock , neo-psychedelia , no wave and industrial music . By the mid 1980s, post-punk had dissipated while providing the impetus for the New Pop movement as well much subsequent alternative and independent music
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Punk Movement
The PUNK SUBCULTURE, which centres on punk rock music, includes a diverse array of ideologies , fashions and forms of expression, including visual art , dance, literature and film. The subculture is largely characterized by anti-establishment views and the promotion of individual freedom. The punk subculture is centered on a loud, aggressive genre of rock music called punk rock. It is usually played by small bands consisting of a vocalist, one or two electric guitarists, an electric bassist, and a drummer. Punk politics cover the entire political spectrum . Punk-related ideologies are mostly concerned with individual freedom and anti-establishment views. Common punk viewpoints include anti-authoritarianism , a DIY ethic , non-conformity , direct action and not selling out . There is a wide range of punk fashion, in terms of clothing (including deliberately offensive T-shirts, leather jackets, Doc Marten boots, etc.), hairstyles (including brightly colored hair, spiked hair, mohawks, etc.), cosmetics, tattoos , jewelery and body modification . Early punk fashion adapted everyday objects for aesthetic effect, such as T-shirts , leather jackets (which are often decorated with painted band logos, pins and buttons, and metal studs or spikes), and footwear such as Converse sneakers, skate shoes , brothel creepers , or Dr. Martens boots
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Punk Rock
PUNK ROCK (or simply "PUNK") is a rock music genre that developed in the early to mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk " music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. Punk
Punk
bands typically produced short or fast-paced songs, with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk
Punk
embraces a DIY ethic ; many bands self-produce recordings and distribute them through informal channels. The term "punk" was first used in relation to rock music by some American critics in the early 1970s, to describe garage bands and their devotees. By late 1976, bands such as the New York Dolls , Television , and the Ramones
Ramones
in New York City
New York City
, and the Sex Pistols
Sex Pistols
, the Clash , and the Damned in London
London
were recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement. The following year saw punk rock spreading around the world, and it became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. For the most part, punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream
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Dub Music
DUB is a genre of music that grew out of reggae in the 1960s, and is commonly considered a subgenre , though it has developed to extend beyond the scope of reggae. Music in this genre consists predominantly of instrumental remixes of existing recordings and is achieved by significantly manipulating and reshaping the recordings, usually by removing the vocals from an existing music piece, and emphasizing the drum and bass parts (this stripped-down track is sometimes referred to as a riddim ). Other techniques include dynamically adding extensive echo , reverb , panoramic delay, and occasional dubbing of vocal or instrumental snippets from the original version or other works. It was an early form of popular electronic music . Dub was pioneered by Osbourne "King Tubby" Ruddock , Lee "Scratch" Perry , Errol Thompson and others in the late 1960s. Augustus Pablo is credited with bringing the melodica to dub, and is also among the pioneers and creators of the genre. Similar experiments with recordings at the mixing desk outside of the dancehall environment were also done by producers Clive Chin and Herman Chin Loy . These producers, especially Ruddock and Perry, looked upon the mixing console as an instrument, manipulating tracks to come up with something new and different
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Funk
FUNK is a music genre that originated in the mid-1960s when African American musicians created a rhythmic , danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music , jazz , and rhythm and blues (R the avant-funk of groups such as Talking Heads and the Pop Group ; boogie (or electro-funk), a form of electronic music; electro music , a hybrid of electronic music and funk; funk metal (e.g., Living Colour ); G-funk, a mix of gangsta rap and funk; Timba , a form of funky Cuban popular dance music; and funk jam (e.g., Phish ). Funk samples and breakbeats have been used extensively in genres including hip hop , and various forms of electronic dance music , such as house music , old-school rave, breakbeat , and drum and bass . It is also the main influence of go-go , a subgenre associated with funk
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Electronic Music
ELECTRONIC MUSIC is music that employs electronic musical instruments , digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology . An ELECTRONIC MUSICIAN being a musician who composes and/or performs such music. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means, such as violins and drums , and that produced using electronic technology. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, hammers, and so on, and electric elements, such as magnetic pickups , power amplifiers and loudspeakers . Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium , Hammond organ , and the electric guitar , which are typically made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Purely electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Electronic instrument sounds can be achieved using devices such as the theremin , sound synthesizer , and computer . The first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, and shortly afterward Italian Futurists explored sounds that had previously not been considered musical. During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were composed
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Krautrock
KRAUTROCK (sometimes called "KOSMISCHE MUSIK", German : _"COSMIC MUSIC"_ ) is a broad genre of experimental rock that developed in Germany
Germany
in the late 1960s. The term "krautrock" was originated by English-speaking music journalists as a humorous name for a diverse range of German bands whose music drew from sources such as psychedelic rock , the avant-garde , electronic music , funk , minimalism , jazz improvisation , and world music styles. Largely divorced from the traditional blues and rock and roll influences of British and American rock music up to that time, the period contributed to the evolution of electronic music and ambient music as well as the birth of post-punk , alternative rock and New Age music . Important acts of the scene include Can , Kraftwerk
Kraftwerk
, Neu! , Ash Ra Tempel , Tangerine Dream , Popol Vuh , and Faust . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Characteristics * 2.1 Motorik beat * 3 Background and origins * 4 Legacy and influence * 5 List of artists * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links ETYMOLOGYUntil around 1973, the word "Deutsch-Rock" ("German Rock") was used to refer to the new groups from West Germany
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Avant-garde Music
AVANT-GARDE MUSIC is music that is considered to be at the forefront of experimentation or innovation in its field, with the term "avant-garde " implying a critique of existing aesthetic conventions, rejection of the status quo in favor of unique or original elements, and the idea of deliberately challenging or alienating audiences. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Classical and contemporary music * 3 Popular music * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading DEFINITIONS For more details on this topic, see Avant-garde . Avant-garde music may be distinguished from experimental music by the way it adopts an extreme position within a certain tradition, whereas "experimental music" lies outside tradition. In a historical sense, some musicologists use the term "avant-garde music" for the radical compositions that succeeded the death of Anton Webern
Anton Webern
in 1945. Don Michael Randel writes that this period began with the work of Richard Wagner , whereas Edward Lowinsky cites Josquin des Prez . The term may also be used to refer to any other post-1945 tendency of modernist music not definable as experimental music, though sometimes including a type of experimental music characterized by the rejection of tonality
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Disco
DISCO is a genre of dance music containing elements of funk , soul , pop and salsa . It achieved popularity during the mid-1970s to the early 1980s. Its initial audiences in the U.S. were club-goers from the gay , African American
African American
, Italian American , Latino , and psychedelic communities in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and New York City
New York City
during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Disco
Disco
can be seen as a reaction against both the domination of rock music and the stigmatization of dance music by the counterculture during this period. Disco
Disco
was popular with both men and women from many different backgrounds, with dances including The Bump (1974), The Hustle (1975) and Y.M.C.A. (1978) . The disco sound often has several components, a "four-on-the-floor" beat, an eighth note (quaver) or 16th note (semi-quaver) hi-hat pattern with an open hi-hat on the off-beat, and a prominent, syncopated electric bass line. In most disco tracks, string sections , horns, electric piano , and electric rhythm guitars create a lush background sound. Orchestral instruments such as the flute are often used for solo melodies, and lead guitar is less frequently used in disco than in rock. Many disco songs use electronic synthesizers , particularly in the late 1970s
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Art Rock
ART ROCK is a subgenre of rock music that generally reflects a challenging or avant-garde approach to rock, or which makes use of modernist , experimental, or unconventional elements. Art rock aspires to elevate rock from teen entertainment to an artistic statement, opting for a more experimental and conceptual outlook on music. Influences may be drawn from genres such as experimental rock , avant-garde music , classical music , and jazz . Its music was created with the intention of listening and contemplation rather than for dancing , and is often distinguished by the use of electronic effects and easy listening textures far removed from the propulsive rhythms of early rock. The term may sometimes be used interchangeably with "progressive rock ", though the latter is instead characterized in particular by its employment of classically trained instrumental technique and symphonic textures. The genre's greatest level of popularity was in the early 1970s through British artists. The music, as well as the theatrical nature of performances associated with the genre, was able to appeal to artistically inclined adolescents and younger adults, especially due to its virtuosity and musical/lyrical complexity. Art rock is most associated with a certain period of rock music, beginning in 1966–67 and ending with the arrival of punk in the mid 1970s. After, the genre would be infused within later popular music genres of the 1970s–90s
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Free Jazz
FREE JAZZ is an approach to jazz music that was first developed in the 1950s and 1960s as musicians attempted to alter, extend, or break down jazz convention, often by discarding fixed chord changes or tempos . Though the music of free jazz composers varied widely, a common feature was dissatisfaction with the limitations of bebop , hard bop , and modal jazz that had developed in the 1940s and 1950s. Often described as avant-garde , free jazz has also been described as an attempt to return jazz to its primitive, often religious, roots and emphasis on collective improvisation. As its name implies, free jazz cannot be defined more than loosely, as many musicians draw on free jazz concepts and idioms, and it was never completely distinct as a genre. Many free jazz musicians, notably Pharoah Sanders and John Coltrane , used harsh overblowing or other techniques to elicit unconventional sounds from their instruments, or played unusual instruments. Free jazz musicians created a progressive musical language which drew on earlier styles of jazz such as Dixieland jazz and African music. Typically this kind of music is played by small groups of musicians. The music often swings but without regular meter, and there are frequent accelerandi and ritardandi . Free jazz is strongly associated with the 1950s innovations of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor and the later works of John Coltrane
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World Music
WORLD MUSIC (also called GLOBAL MUSIC or INTERNATIONAL MUSIC ) is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music , as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music , neotraditional music, and music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music , intermingle. World music's inclusive nature and elasticity as a musical category may pose for some obstacles to a universal definition, but its ethic of interest in the culturally exotic is encapsulated in _fRoots _ magazine's description of the genre as "local music from out there". The term was popularized in the 1980s as a marketing category for non-Western traditional music. Globalization has facilitated the expansion of world music's audiences and scope. It has grown to include hybrid subgenres such as world fusion, global fusion, ethnic fusion, and worldbeat
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Glam Rock
GLAM ROCK (also known as GLITTER ROCK) is a style of rock and pop music that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s performed by musicians who wore outrageous costumes, makeup , and hairstyles, particularly platform shoes and glitter . Glam artists drew on diverse sources across music and throwaway culture , ranging from bubblegum pop and '50s rock and roll to cabaret , science fiction , and complex art rock . The flamboyant clothing and visual styles of performers were often camp or androgynous , and have been described as playing with nontraditional gender roles . The UK charts were inundated with glam rock acts from 1971 to 1975, with glam also manifesting in all areas of British popular culture during this period. British glam rock artists include Marc Bolan and T. Rex , David Bowie , Sweet , Slade , Mud , Roxy Music and Gary Glitter . In the US the scene was much less prevalent, with Alice Cooper and Lou Reed the only American artists to score a hit. Other US glam artists include New York Dolls , Iggy Pop and Jobriath . It declined after the mid-1970s, but influenced other musical genres including punk rock , glam metal , New Romanticism , and gothic rock and has sporadically revived since the 1990s
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Art Pop
ART POP (also typeset as ART-POP or ARTPOP) is a loosely defined style of pop music influenced by pop art and the integration of high and low culture . Drawing on postmodern approaches and art theories as well as other forms of art, such as fine art , fashion , cinema , and avant-garde literature, art pop emphasizes the manipulation of signs , style, and gesture over personal expression. Art pop
Art pop
artists deviate from traditional rock music conventions and pop audiences, exploring ideas such as pop's status as commercial art , notions of artifice, the self as a construction, and questions of historical authenticity . Starting in the mid 1960s, British and American pop musicians began incorporating the ideas of the pop art movement and pseudo-symphonic textures to their recordings. English art pop musicians drew from their art school studies, while in America the style intersected with the Beat Generation and folk music 's subsequent singer-songwriter movement. After its "golden age" among some glam rock artists who embraced theatricality and throwaway pop culture in the 1970s, art pop's traditions would be continued in styles such as post-punk , industrial music , and synthpop , as well as the British New Romantic scene of the 1980s. The genre further developed with artists who rejected conventional rock instrumentation and structure in favor of dance styles and the synthesizer
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Progressive Music
PROGRESSIVE MUSIC is music that subverts genre and expands stylistic boundaries outwards. Rooted in the idea of a cultural alternative , musical progressiveness embodies a continuous move between explicit and implicit references to genres and strategies derived from various cultural domains, such as European art music , Celtic folk , West Indian , or African . The word "progressive" comes from the basic concept of "progress", which refers to development and growth by accumulation, and is often deployed in numerous music genres such as progressive country , progressive folk , progressive jazz , and (most significantly) progressive rock . Among art theories , the progressive approach falls between formalism and eclecticism . "Formalism" refers to a preoccupation with established external compositional systems, structural unity, and the autonomy of individual art works. Like formalism, "eclecticism" connotates a predilection toward style synthesis or integration. However, contrary to formalist tendencies, eclecticism foregrounds discontinuities between historical and contemporary styles and electronic media , sometimes referring simultaneously to vastly different musical genres, idioms, and cultural codes . In marketing , "progressive" is used to distinguish a product from "commercial " pop music
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Alternative Rock
ALTERNATIVE ROCK (also called ALTERNATIVE MUSIC, ALT-ROCK or simply ALTERNATIVE) is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music. The term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or simply the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock , which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, that is seen to be descended from punk rock (including some examples of punk itself, as well as new wave , and post-punk ). Alternative rock is a broad umbrella term consisting of music that differs greatly in terms of its sound, its social context, and its regional roots. By the end of the 1980s magazines and zines , college radio airplay, and word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles (and music scenes) such as noise pop , indie rock , grunge , and alternative hip hop
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