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Post Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis
Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis
is a disorder of the glomeruli (glomerulonephritis), or small blood vessels in the kidneys
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Micrograph
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to a macrographic image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. Micrography
Micrography
is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure
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Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.[3][1] It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals.[1] Not enough nutrients is called undernutrition or undernourishment while too much is called overnutrition.[2] Malnutrition
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Kidney
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates. They are located at the back of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneal space. In adults they are about 11 centimetres (4.3 in) in length. They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each adult kidney contains around one million nephrons. The nephron utilizes four processes to alter the blood plasma which flows to it: filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion
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Biopsy
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease. The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be analyzed chemically. When an entire lump or suspicious area is removed, the procedure is called an excisional biopsy. An incisional biopsy or core biopsy samples a portion of the abnormal tissue without attempting to remove the entire lesion or tumor. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle in such a way that cells are removed without preserving the histological architecture of the tissue cells, the procedure is called a needle aspiration biopsy
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Blood
Blood
Blood
is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.[1] In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),[2] and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells
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Antistreptolysin
Anti-streptolysin O (ASO or ASLO) is the antibody made against streptolysin O, an immunogenic, oxygen-labile streptococcal hemolytic exotoxin produced by most strains of group A and many strains of groups C and G Streptococcus
Streptococcus
bacteria. The "O" in the name stands for oxygen-labile; the other related toxin being oxygen-stable streptolysin-S. The main function of streptolysin O is to cause hemolysis (the breaking open of red blood cells) — in particular, beta-hemolysis. Increased levels of aso titre in the blood could cause damage to the heart and joints. In most cases, penicillin is used to treat patients with increased levels of aso titre.Contents1 Clinical significance 2 Estimation 3 Mechanism of action 4 Antistreptolysin O titre 5 References 6 External linksClinical significance[edit] When the body is infected with streptococci, it produces antibodies against the various antigens that the streptococci produce
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DNAse
A deoxyribonuclease (DNase, for short) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA
DNA
backbone, thus degrading DNA. Deoxyribonucleases are one type of nuclease, a generic term for enzymes capable of hydrolyzing phosphodiester bonds that link nucleotides. A wide variety of deoxyribonucleases are known, which differ in their substrate specificities, chemical mechanisms, and biological functions.Contents1 Modes of action 2 Uses 3 Types 4 Assay 5 Notes and referencesModes of action[edit] Some DNases cut, or "cleave", only residues at the ends of DNA molecules (exodeoxyribonucleases, a type of exonuclease)
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Lupus Nephritis
Lupus nephritis
Lupus nephritis
(also known as SLE nephritis)[2] is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease.[1] It is a type of glomerulonephritis in which the glomeruli become inflamed. As the result of SLE, the cause of glomerulonephritis is said to be secondary and has a different pattern and outcome from conditions with a primary cause originating in the kidney.[3][4]Contents1 Classification 2 Signs and symptoms 3 Cause 4 Pathophysiology 5 Diagnosis 6 Treatment 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksClassification[edit] Class I disease (minimal mesangial glomerulonephritis) in its histology has a normal appearance under a light microscope, but mesangial deposits are visible under an electron microscope. At this stage urinalysis is normal.[5] Class II disease (mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis) is noted by mesangial hypercellularity and matrix expansion
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Endocarditis
Endocarditis
Endocarditis
is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. It usually involves the heart valves. Other structures that may be involved include the interventricular septum, the chordae tendineae, the mural endocardium, or the surfaces of intracardiac devices. Endocarditis
Endocarditis
is characterized by lesions, known as vegetations, which is a mass of platelets, fibrin, microcolonies of microorganisms, and scant inflammatory cells.[1] In the subacute form of infective endocarditis, the vegetation may also include a center of granulomatous tissue, which may fibrose or calcify.[2] There are several ways to classify endocarditis. The simplest classification is based on cause: either infective or non-infective, depending on whether a microorganism is the source of the inflammation or not
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Shunt Nephritis
Shunt nephritis
Shunt nephritis
is a rare disease of the kidney that can occur in patients being treated for hydrocephalus with a cerebral shunt. It usually results from an infected shunt that produces a long-standing blood infection, particularly by the bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis. Kidney
Kidney
disease results from an immune response that deposits immune complexes in the kidney. The most common signs and symptoms of the condition are blood and protein in the urine, anemia, and high blood pressure. Diagnosis is based on these findings in the context of characteristic laboratory values. Treatment includes antibiotics and the prompt removal of the infected shunt
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Cryoglobulinemia
Cryoglobulinemia[1], cryoglobulinaemia, or cryoglobulinemic disease, is a medical condition in which the blood contains large amounts of cryoglobulins – proteins (mostly immunoglobulins themselves) that become insoluble at reduced temperatures. This should be contrasted with cold agglutinins, which cause agglutination of red blood cells. Cryoglobulins typically precipitate at temperatures below normal body temperature – 37 degrees Celsius (99 degrees Fahrenheit) – and will dissolve again if the blood is heated. The precipitated clump can block blood vessels and cause toes and fingers to become gangrenous
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Nephrotic Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome
is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.[1] This includes protein in the urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant swelling.[1] Other symptoms may include weight gain, feeling tired, and foamy urine.[1] Complications may include blood clots, infections, and high blood pressure.[1] Causes include a number of kidney diseases such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, and minimal change disease.[1][2] It may also occur as a complication of diabetes or lupus.[
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Malabsorption
Malabsorption
Malabsorption
is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Impairment can be of single or multiple nutrients depending on the abnormality. This may lead to malnutrition and a variety of anaemias.[1] Normally the human gastrointestinal tract digests and absorbs dietary nutrients with remarkable efficiency. A typical Western diet ingested by an adult in one day includes approximately 100 g of fat, 400 g of carbohydrate, 100 g of protein, 2 L of fluid, and the required sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, vitamins, and other elements. Salivary, gastric, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions add an additional 7–8 L of protein-, lipid-, and electrolyte-containing fluid to intestinal contents
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C4BP
C4b-binding protein (C4BP) is a protein involved in the complement system where it acts as inhibitor. C4BP has an octopus-like structure with a central stalk and seven branching alpha-chains. The main form of C4BP in human blood is composed of 7 identical alpha-chains and one unique beta-chain, which in turn binds anticoagulant, vitamin K-dependent protein S. C4BP is a large glycoprotein (500 kDa) with an estimated plasma concentration of 200 micrograms/mL synthesized mainly in the liver. The genes coding for C4BP α-chain (C4BPA) and β-chain (C4BPB) are located in the regulators of complement activation (RCA) gene cluster on the long arm of chromosome 1 in the vicinity of other complement inhibitors. Functions[edit] It inhibits the action the classical and the lectin pathways, more specifically C4. It also has ability to bind C3b
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Heart Failure
Heart
Heart
failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.[9][10][11] Signs and symptoms commonly include shortness of breath, excessive tiredness, and leg swelling.[2] The shortness of breath is usually worse with exercise, while lying down, and may wake the person at night.[2] A limited ability to exercise is also a common fea
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