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Portsmouth Earthworks
The PORTSMOUTH EARTHWORKS are a large prehistoric mound complex constructed by the Ohio
Ohio
Hopewell culture
Hopewell culture
mound builder indigenous peoples of eastern North America (100 BCE to 500 CE). The site was one of the largest earthwork ceremonial centers constructed by the Hopewell and is located at the confluence of the Scioto and Ohio Rivers , in present-day Ohio
Ohio
. The majority of the mound complex site is now covered by the city of Portsmouth in Scioto County, Ohio
Scioto County, Ohio
. Several individual sections of the complex have been included on the National Register of Historic Places
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Portsmouth, Ohio
PORTSMOUTH is a city in and the county seat of Scioto County , Ohio
Ohio
, United States
United States
. It lies in far southern Ohio
Ohio
, just east of the mouth of the Scioto River at the Ohio
Ohio
River, and across from Kentucky. The population was 20,226 at the 2010 census
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " (
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Adena Culture
The ADENA CULTURE was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period . The Adena culture
Adena culture
refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. The Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio
Ohio
, Indiana
Indiana
, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
, West Virginia
West Virginia
, Kentucky
Kentucky
, New York , Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Maryland
Maryland

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Hopewell Culture
The HOPEWELL TRADITION (also called the HOPEWELL CULTURE) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States
United States
from 200 BC to 500 AD , in the Middle Woodland
Middle Woodland
period . The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell exchange system. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Southeastern United States
United States
as far south as the Crystal River Indian Mounds into the southeastern Canadian shores of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
in the north. Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways
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Earthwork (archaeology)
In archaeology , EARTHWORKS are artificial changes in land level, typically made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil. Earthworks can themselves be archaeological features , or they can show features beneath the surface. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Size * 3 Detection * 4 Interpretation * 5 Examples * 6 Gallery * 7 Notes * 8 References TYPESEarthworks of interest to archaeologists include hill forts , henges , mounds , platform mounds , effigy mounds , enclosures , long barrows , tumuli , ridge and furrow , mottes , round barrows , and other tombs . * Hill forts , a type of fort made out of mostly earth and other natural materials including sand, straw, and water, were built as early as the late Stone Age and were built more frequently during the Bronze Age and Iron Age as a means of protection
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National Register Of Historic Places
The NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES (NRHP) is the United States federal government 's official list of districts , sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts . Each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings
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Scioto County, Ohio
SCIOTO COUNTY is a county located in the south central region of the U.S. state of Ohio
Ohio
. As of the 2010 census , the population was 79,499. Its county seat is Portsmouth . The county was founded March 24, 1803 from Adams County and is named for an Indian word referring to deer or deer-hunting. Scioto County comprises the Portsmouth, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area , which is also included in the Charleston-Huntington-Ashland,WV-OH-KY Combined Statistical Area . It is located at the confluence of the Scioto and Ohio
Ohio
rivers
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Greenup County, Kentucky
GREENUP COUNTY is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky
Kentucky
. As of the 2010 census , the population was 36,910. The county was founded in 1803 and named in honor of Christopher Greenup
Christopher Greenup
. Its county seat is Greenup . Greenup County is part of the Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area
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South Shore, Kentucky
SOUTH SHORE is a home rule-class city in Greenup County , Kentucky
Kentucky
, United States
United States
. The population was 1,122 at the 2010 census , down from 1,226 at the 2000 census . It is located along the Ohio River across from Portsmouth, Ohio
Portsmouth, Ohio
, at the mouth of Tygarts Creek . South Shore is a part of the Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH, Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). The South Portsmouth–South Shore station serves Amtrak
Amtrak
's Cardinal Trains 50 -82.96361 (38.721577, -82.963606), on the south bank of the Ohio River. U.S. Route 23 passes through the city limits, leading southeast 16 miles (26 km) to Greenup , the county seat , and 29 miles (47 km) to Ashland . To the west US-23 leads 2 miles (3 km) to the south end of the U.S. Grant Bridge , which carries the highway across the Ohio River into Portsmouth
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Mound
A MOUND is a heaped pile of earth , gravel , sand , rocks , or debris . Most commonly, mounds are earthen formations such as hills and mountains , particularly if they appear artificial. A mound may be any rounded area of topographically higher elevation on any surface. Artificial mounds have been created for a variety of reasons throughout history, including ceremonial (platform mound ), burial (tumulus ), and commemorative purposes (e.g. Kościuszko Mound )
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Mound Builder (people)
The various cultures collectively termed MOUND BUILDERS were inhabitants of North America who, during a 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious and ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes. These included the Pre-Columbian cultures of the Archaic period ; Woodland period
Woodland period
(Adena and Hopewell cultures); and Mississippian period ; dating from roughly 3500 BCE (the construction of Watson Brake ) to the 16th century CE, and living in regions of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
, the Ohio River
Ohio River
Valley, and the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
valley and its tributary waters. Since the 19th century, the prevailing scholarly consensus has been that the mounds were constructed by indigenous peoples of the Americas
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Confluence
In geography , a CONFLUENCE is the meeting of two or more bodies of water. Also known as a _conflux_, it refers either to the point where a tributary joins a larger river , (main stem ), or where two streams meet to become the source of a river of a new name, such as the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers in Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania creating the Ohio River . The term is also used to describe the meeting of tidal or other non-riverine bodies of water, such as two canals or a canal and a lake. A one-mile (1.6 km) portion of the Industrial Canal in New Orleans accommodates the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal ; therefore those three waterways are confluent there
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Scioto River
The SCIOTO RIVER (/saɪˈoʊtoʊ/ sy-OH-toh or /saɪˈoʊtə/ sy-OH-tə ) is a river in central and southern Ohio
Ohio
more than 231 miles (372 km) in length. It rises in Auglaize County in west central Ohio, flows through Columbus, Ohio
Ohio
, where it collects its largest tributary , the Olentangy River , and meets the Ohio River at Portsmouth . Too small for modern commercial shipping , its primary economic importance is for recreation and drinking water
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