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Porous Glass
Porous glass
Porous glass
is glass that includes pores, usually in the nanometre- or micrometre-range, commonly prepared by one of the following processes: through metastable phase separation in borosilicate glasses (such as in the system SiO2-B2O3-Na2O), followed by liquid extraction of one of the formed phases;[1][2] through the sol-gel process; or simply by sintering glass powder. The specific properties and commercial availability of porous glass make it one of the most extensively researched and characterized amorphous solids. Due to the possibility of modeling the microstructure, porous glasses have a high potential as a model system. They show a high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance, which results from a rigid and incompressible silica network. They can be produced in high quality and with pore sizes ranging from 1 nm up to any desired value
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Vycor
Vycor is the brand name of Corning's high-silica, high-temperature glass. It provides very high thermal shock resistance. Vycor is approximately 96% silica and 4% boron trioxide, but unlike pure fused silica, it can be readily manufactured in a variety of shapes. Vycor products are made by a multi-step process. First, a relatively soft alkali-borosilicate glass is melted and formed by typical glassworking techniques into the desired shape. This is heat-treated, which causes the material to separate into two intermingled "phases" with distinct chemical compositions. One phase is rich in alkali and boric oxide and can be easily dissolved in acid. The other phase is mostly silica, which is insoluble. The glass object is then soaked in a hot acid solution, which leaches away the soluble glass phase, leaving an object which is mostly silica. At this stage, the glass is porous
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Borax
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid. Powdered borax is white, consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve in water. A number of closely related minerals or chemical compounds that differ in their crystal water content are referred to as borax, but the word is usually used to refer to the decahydrate
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Nanometre
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms
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Oligonucleotide Synthesis
Oligonucleotide synthesis
Oligonucleotide synthesis
is the chemical synthesis of relatively short fragments of nucleic acids with defined chemical structure (sequence). The technique is extremely useful in current laboratory practice because it provides a rapid and inexpensive access to custom-made oligonucleotides of the desired sequence. Whereas enzymes synthesize DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
only in a 5' to 3' direction, chemical oligonucleotide synthesis does not have this limitation, although it is, most often, carried out in the opposite, 3' to 5' direction. Currently, the process is implemented as solid-phase synthesis using phosphoramidite method and phosphoramidite building blocks derived from protected 2'-deoxynucleosides (dA, dC, dG, and T), ribonucleosides (A, C, G, and U), or chemically modified nucleosides, e.g
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Colloidal Silica
Colloidal silicas are suspensions of fine amorphous, nonporous, and typically spherical silica particles in a liquid phase.Contents1 Properties 2 Manufacture 3 Applications 4 See alsoProperties[edit]This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2017)Manufacture[edit] Colloidal silicas are most often prepared in a multi-step process where an alkali-silicate solution is partially neutralized, leading to the formation of silica nuclei. The subunits of colloidal silica particles are typically in the range of 1 to 5 nm. Whether or not these subunits are joined together depends on the conditions of polymerization. Initial acidification of a water-glass (sodium silicate) solution yields Si(OH)4. If the pH is reduced below 7 or if salt is added, then the units tend to fuse together in chains. These products are often called silica gels. If the pH is kept slightly on the alkaline side of neutral, then the subunits stay separated, and they gradually grow
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Primary Decomposition
In mathematics, the Lasker–Noether theorem states that every Noetherian ring is a Lasker ring, which means that every ideal can be decomposed as an intersection, called primary decomposition, of finitely many primary ideals (which are related to, but not quite the same as, powers of prime ideals). The theorem was first proven by Emanuel Lasker (1905) for the special case of polynomial rings and convergent power series rings, and was proven in its full generality by Emmy Noether (1921). The Lasker–Noether theorem is an extension of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, and more generally the fundamental theorem of finitely generated abelian groups to all Noetherian rings
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Miscibility Gap
A miscibility gap is a region in a phase diagram for a mixture of components where the mixture exists as two or more phases - any region of composition of mixtures where the constituents are not completely miscible. The IUPAC Gold Book defines miscibility gap as "Area within the coexistence curve of an isobaric phase diagram (temperature vs composition) or an isothermal phase diagram (pressure vs composition)."[1] A miscibility gap between isostructural phases may be described as the solvus, a term also used to describe the boundary on a phase diagram between a miscibility gap and other phases.[2] Thermodynamically, miscibility gaps indicate a maxima (e.g
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Tyndall Effect
The Tyndall effect, also known as Willis–Tyndall scattering, is light scattering by particles in a colloid or else particles in a very fine suspension. It is named after the 19th-century physicist John Tyndall. It is similar to Rayleigh scattering, in that the intensity of the scattered light depends on the fourth power of the frequency, so blue light is scattered much more strongly than red light. An example in everyday life is the blue colour sometimes seen in the smoke emitted by motorcycles, in particular two-stroke machines where the burnt engine oil provides these particles. Under the Tyndall effect, the longer-wavelength light is more transmitted while the shorter-wavelength light is more reflected via scattering
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Alkaline
In chemistry, an alkali (/ˈælkəlaɪ/; from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element. An alkali also can be defined as a base that dissolves in water. A solution of a soluble base has a pH greater than 7.0. The adjective alkaline is commonly, and alkalescent less often, used in English as a synonym for basic, especially for bases soluble in water
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Silicon Dioxide
Silica Silicic oxide Silicon(IV) oxide Crystalline silicaIdentifiersCAS Number7631-86-9 YChEBICHEBI:30563 YChemSpider22683 YECHA InfoCard 100.028.678EC Number 231-545-4E number E551 (acidity regulators, ...)Gmelin Reference200274KEGGC16459 NMeSH Silicon+dioxide PubChem CID24261 RTECS number VV7565000UNIIETJ7Z6XBU4 YInChIInChI=1S/O2Si/c1-3-2 Y Key: VYPSYNLAJGMNEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N YPropertiesChemical formulaSiO2Molar mass 60.08 g/molAppearance
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Vycor
Vycor is the brand name of Corning's high-silica, high-temperature glass. It provides very high thermal shock resistance. Vycor is approximately 96% silica and 4% boron trioxide, but unlike pure fused silica, it can be readily manufactured in a variety of shapes. Vycor products are made by a multi-step process. First, a relatively soft alkali-borosilicate glass is melted and formed by typical glassworking techniques into the desired shape. This is heat-treated, which causes the material to separate into two intermingled "phases" with distinct chemical compositions. One phase is rich in alkali and boric oxide and can be easily dissolved in acid. The other phase is mostly silica, which is insoluble. The glass object is then soaked in a hot acid solution, which leaches away the soluble glass phase, leaving an object which is mostly silica. At this stage, the glass is porous
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Viscosity
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.[1] For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness"; for example, honey has higher viscosity than water.[2] Viscosity
Viscosity
is a property of the fluid which opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid that are moving at different velocities. In simple terms, viscosity means friction between the molecules of fluid. When the fluid is forced through a tube, the particles which compose the fluid generally move more quickly near the tube's axis and more slowly near its walls; therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers to keep the fluid moving
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