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Population Density
POPULATION DENSITY (in agriculture : standing stock and standing crop ) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density . It is frequently applied to living organisms , and most of the time to humans . It is a key geographical term. CONTENTS* 1 Biological population densities * 1.1 Human
Human
population density * 1.1.1 By political boundaries * 1.1.2 Other methods of measurement * 2 See also * 2.1 Lists of entities by population density * 3 References * 4 External links BIOLOGICAL POPULATION DENSITIES Population
Population
density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may cause an extinction vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: * Increased problems with locating sexual mates * Increased inbreeding HUMAN POPULATION DENSITY Monaco
Monaco
in Southern Europe , currently holds the record for being the most densely populated nation in the world. Mongolia
Mongolia
is the least densely populated country in the world. This population cartogram of the European Union (2007-2012) uses areas and colors to represent population
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates : 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere highlighted in blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North Pole
North Pole
The NORTHERN HEMISPHERE is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the equator . For other planets in the Solar System
Solar System
, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's North
North
pole. Due to the Earth's axial tilt , winter in the Northern Hemisphere lasts from the December solstice (typically December 21 UTC) to the March Equinox (typically March 20 UTC), while summer lasts from the June solstice (typically June 21 UTC) through to the September equinox (typically September 23 UTC). The dates vary each year due to the difference between the calendar year and the astronomical year . Its surface is 60.7% water, compared with 80.9% water in the case of the Southern Hemisphere , and it contains 67.3% of Earth's land
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Agriculture
AGRICULTURE or FARMING is the cultivation and breeding of animals , plants and fungi for food , fiber , biofuel , medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization , whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization . The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science . The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates , cultures , and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology. Modern agronomy , plant breeding , agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers , and technological developments have in many cases sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and the health effects of the antibiotics , growth hormones , and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production . Genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries
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Livestock Crush
A CATTLE CRUSH (in UK , New Zealand , Ireland and Australia ), SQUEEZE CHUTE ( North America ), STANDING STOCK, or simply STOCK (North America, Ireland ) is a strongly built stall or cage for holding cattle , horses , or other livestock safely while they are examined , marked, or given veterinary treatment. Cows may be made to suckle calves in a crush. For the safety of the animal and the people attending it, a close-fitting crush may be used to ensure the animal stands "stock still". The overall purpose of a crush is to hold an animal still to minimise the risk of injury to both the animal and the operator while work on the animal is performed. CONTENTS * 1 Construction * 2 Specialist crushes * 3 Hoof trimming crush * 4 Integrated weighing systems * 5 History * 6 References * 7 External links CONSTRUCTION A portable crush Crushes were traditionally manufactured from wood; this, however, was prone to deterioration from the elements over time, as well as having the potential to splinter and cause injury to the animal. In recent years, most budget-quality crushes have been built using standard heavy steel pipe that is welded together, while superior quality crushes are now manufactured using doubly symmetric oval tubing for increasing bending strength, bruise minimisation and stiffness in stockyard applications
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Standing Crop
A STANDING CROP is the total dried biomass of the living organisms present in a given environment. CONTENTS * 1 See also * 2 Bibliography * 3 References * 4 External links SEE ALSO * Biomass (ecology) * Net Primary Production BIBLIOGRAPHY * Ackley, S. F.; Buck, K. R.; Taguchi, S. (1979). " Standing crop of algae in the sea ice of the Weddell Sea region". _Deep-Sea Research Part A: Oceanographic Research Papers_. 26 (3): 269–281. doi :10.1016/0198-0149(79)90024-4 . * Boudouresque CF (1973) _Les peuplements sciaphiles ; Recherches de bionomie analytique, structurale et expérimentale sur les peuplements benthiques sciaphiles de Méditerranée occidentale (fraction algale)_. Bulletin du Muséum d'histoire naturelle, 33, 147, PDF, 80 pages. * Campbell, Reece, Urry, Cain, et al. (2011) 9th ed. Biology. Benjamin Cummings. pg 1221 * Fausch, K. D., Hawkes, C. L., Larkum, A. W. D. (1983). "An experimental analysis of factors controlling the standing crop of the epilithic algal community on a coral reef". _Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology_. 69 (1): 61–84. doi :10.1016/0022-0981(83)90172-7 . * Jenkins, R. M. (1968). _The influence of some environmental factors on standing crop and harvest of fishes in US reservoirs_. * Moore, D. R.; Keddy, P. A. (1988). "The relationship between species richness and standing crop in wetlands: the importance of scale". _Vegetatio_. 79 (1-2): 99–106. doi :10.1007/BF00044853
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Population
A POPULATION is all the organisms of the same group or species , which live in a particular geographical area , and have the capability of interbreeding. The area that is used to define a sexual population is defined as the area where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area, and where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology , population refers to a collection of humans . Demography
Demography
is a social science which entails the statistical study of human populations. This article refers mainly to the human population. CONTENTS * 1 Population genetics (ecology) * 2 World human population * 2.1 Predicted growth and decline * 2.2 Control * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links POPULATION GENETICS (ECOLOGY)In population genetics a sexual population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together. This means that they can regularly exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, and such a breeding group is also known therefore as a _Gamo deme_. This also implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is very large (theoretically, approaching infinity), and all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic
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Number Density
In physics , astronomy , chemistry , biology and geography , NUMBER DENSITY (symbol: _n_ or _ρ__N_) is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects (particles , molecules , phonons , cells , galaxies , etc.) in physical space: three-dimensional volumetric number density, two-dimensional areal number density, or one-dimensional line number density. Population density is an example of areal number density. The term NUMBER CONCENTRATION (symbol: _C_, to avoid confusion with amount of substance _n_) is sometimes used in chemistry for the same quantity, particularly when comparing with other concentrations. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Units * 3 Usage * 4 Relation to other quantities * 4.1 Molar concentration * 4.2 Mass density * 5 Examples * 6 See also * 7 References and notes DEFINITION Volume number density is the number of specified objects per unit volume : n = N V , {displaystyle n={frac {N}{V}},} where _N_ is the total number of objects in a volume _V_. Here it is assumed that _N_ is large enough that rounding of the count to the nearest integer does not introduce much of an error , however _V_ is chosen to be small enough that the resulting _n_ does not depend much on the size or shape of the volume _V_. UNITSIn SI units, number density is measured in m−3, although cm−3 is often used
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Living Organisms
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, _organismos_) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote . Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains —bacteria and archaea . Eukaryotic organisms are characterized by the presence of a membrane-bound cell nucleus and contain additional membrane-bound compartments called organelles (such as mitochondria in animals and plants and plastids in plants and algae , all generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria). Fungi, animals and plants are examples of kingdoms of organisms within the eukaryotes. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which only about 1.2 million have been documented. More than 99% of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived are estimated to be extinct
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Human
† _ Homo sapiens idaltu _ White _et al._, 2003 _ Homo sapiens sapiens _ _ Homo sapiens _ population density SYNONYMS Species synonymy * _aethiopicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _americanus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _arabicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _aurignacensis_ Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 * _australasicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _cafer_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _capensis_ Broom, 1917 * _columbicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _cro-magnonensis_ Gregory, 1921 * _drennani_ Kleinschmidt, 1931 * _eurafricanus_ (Sergi, 1911) * _grimaldiensis_ Gregory, 1921 * _grimaldii_ Lapouge, 1906 * _hottentotus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _hyperboreus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _indicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _japeticus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _melaninus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _monstrosus_ Linnaeus, 1758 * _neptunianus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _palestinus_ McCown high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies . Early hominins—particularly the australopithecines , whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes —are less often referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus _Homo_
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Extinction Vortex
EXTINCTION VORTICES are a class of models through which conservation biologists , geneticists and ecologists can understand the dynamics of and categorize extinctions in the context of their causes. Developed by M. E. Gilpin and M. E. Soulé in their (now) famous 1986 paper _Minimum viable populations: Processes of species extinction,_ there are currently four classes of extinction vortices. The first two (R and D) deal with environmental factors that have an effect on the ecosystem or community level, such as disturbance , pollution , habitat loss etc. Whereas the second two (F and A) deal with genetic factors such as inbreeding depression and outbreeding depression , genetic drift etc. TYPES OF VORTICES * R VORTEX: The R vortex is initiated when there is a disturbance which facilitates a lowering of population size (N) and a corresponding increase in variability (Var(r)). This event can make populations vulnerable to additional disturbances which will lead to further decreases in population size (N) and further increases in variability (Var(r)). A prime example of this would be the disruption of sex ratios in a population away from the species optimum. * D VORTEX: The D vortex is initiated when population size (N) decreases and variability (Var(r)) increases such that the spatial distribution (D) of the population is increased and the population becomes "patchy" or fragmented
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Allee Effect
The ALLEE EFFECT is a phenomenon in biology characterized by a correlation between population size or density and the mean individual fitness (often measured as _per capita _ population growth rate ) of a population or species. CONTENTS * 1 History and background * 2 Definition * 2.1 Component vs. demographic Allee effects * 2.2 Strong vs. weak Allee effects * 3 Mechanisms * 3.1 Ecological mechanism * 3.2 Genetic mechanisms * 3.3 Demographic stochasticity * 4 Effects on range-expanding populations * 5 Mathematical models * 6 Allee principles of aggregation * 7 References * 7.1 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORY AND BACKGROUND Main article: Warder Clyde Allee Although the concept of Allee effect had no title at the time, it was first described in the 1930s by its namesake, Warder Clyde Allee . Through experimental studies, Allee was able to demonstrate that goldfish grow more rapidly when there are more individuals within the tank. This led him to conclude that aggregation can improve the survival rate of individuals, and that cooperation may be crucial in the overall evolution of social structure. The term "Allee principle" was introduced in the 1950s, a time when the field of ecology was heavily focused on the role of competition among and within species
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Inbreeding
INBREEDING is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically . By analogy, the term is used in human reproduction , but more commonly refers to the genetic disorders and other consequences that may arise from incestuous sexual relationships and consanguinity . Inbreeding
Inbreeding
results in homozygosity , which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. This generally leads to a decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression ), which is its ability to survive and reproduce. An individual who inherits such deleterious traits is referred to as _inbred_. The avoidance of expression of such deleterious recessive alleles caused by inbreeding, via inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, is the main selective reason for outcrossing. Crossbreeding between populations also often has positive effects on fitness-related traits, but also sometimes leads to negative effects known as outbreeding depression . Inbreeding
Inbreeding
is a technique used in selective breeding . For example, in livestock breeding , breeders may use inbreeding when trying to establish a new and desirable trait in the stock, but will need to watch for undesirable characteristics in offspring, which can then be eliminated through further selective breeding or culling
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Monaco
MONACO (/ˈmɒnəkoʊ/ (_ listen ); French pronunciation: ​ ), officially the PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO (French : Principauté de Monaco_), is a sovereign city-state , country and microstate located on the French Riviera in Western Europe . France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea . Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 (0.78 sq mi) and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2016. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest and second most densely populated country in the world . Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km (3.40 mi), a coastline of 3.83 km (2.38 mi), and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m (1,859 and 382 yd). The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel , in the Les Révoires _Ward_, which is 161 metres (528 feet) above sea level . Monaco's most populous _Quartier_ is Monte Carlo and the most populous _Ward_ is Larvotto/Bas Moulins . Through land reclamation , Monaco's land mass has expanded by twenty percent ; in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2 (0.762 sq mi). Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva
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Southern Europe
SOUTHERN EUROPE is the southern region of the European continent . Most definitions of Southern Europe, also known as MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE, include the countries of the Iberian peninsula ( Spain and Portugal ), the Italian peninsula , Greece and Malta . The definition of Southern Europe may include the entirety of Southeast Europe or the Balkan countries of Southeast Europe, which are geographically technically in the southern part of Europe but have particular historical, political, economic, and cultural backgrounds that distinguish them from the main Southern European countries and places them more in the category of Eastern Europe . Geographic features of Southern European countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea European sub-regions according to EuroVoc (the thesaurus of the European Union ). Southern Europe is marked yellow on this map. Different methods can be used to define Southern Europe, including its political , economic , and cultural attributes. Southern Europe can also be defined by its natural features — its geography , climate , and flora
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Mongolia
MONGOLIA /mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ ( listen ) (Mongolian : Монгол Улс in Mongolian Cyrillic ; ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ in Mongolian script ; literally: MONGOL STATE) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia . Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia , and that term is sometimes used to refer to the Mongolian People\'s Republic . It is located between China to the south and Russia to the north. While it does not share a border with Kazakhstan , Mongolia is separated from it by only 36.76 kilometers (22.84 mi). At 1,564,116 square kilometers (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the 18th largest country in the world by land mass and has a population of around three million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea . The country contains very little arable land , as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe , with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar , the capital and largest city, is home to about 40%-45% of the country's population. Horse culture is still integral. The majority of its population are Buddhists
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Cartogram
A CARTOGRAM is a map in which some thematic mapping variable – such as travel time, population, or Gross National Product – is substituted for land area or distance. The geometry or space of the map is distorted in order to convey the information of this alternate variable. They are primarily used to display emphasis and for analysis as nomographs . Two common types of cartograms: area and distance cartograms. Cartograms have a fairly long history, with examples from the mid-1800s. CONTENTS * 1 Area cartograms * 2 Production * 2.1 Algorithms * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links AREA CARTOGRAMS Area cartogram of the United States , with each county rescaled in proportion to its population. Colors refer to the results of the 2004 U.S. presidential election popular vote. Area cartogram of the world with each country rescaled in proportion to the hectares of certified organic farming An area cartogram is sometimes referred to as a _value-by-area map_ or an _isodemographic map_, the latter particularly for a _population cartogram_, which illustrates the relative sizes of the populations of the countries of the world by scaling the area of each country in proportion to its population; the shape and relative location of each country is retained to as large an extent as possible, but inevitably a large amount of distortion results
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