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Population Density
POPULATION DENSITY (in agriculture : standing stock and standing crop ) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density . It is frequently applied to living organisms , and most of the time to humans . It is a key geographical term. CONTENTS* 1 Biological population densities * 1.1 Human
Human
population density * 1.1.1 By political boundaries * 1.1.2 Other methods of measurement * 2 See also * 2.1 Lists of entities by population density * 3 References * 4 External links BIOLOGICAL POPULATION DENSITIES Population
Population
density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may cause an extinction vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates : 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere highlighted in blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North Pole
North Pole
The NORTHERN HEMISPHERE is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the equator . For other planets in the Solar System
Solar System
, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's North
North
pole
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Agriculture
AGRICULTURE or FARMING is the cultivation and breeding of animals , plants and fungi for food , fiber , biofuel , medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization , whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization . The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science . The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates , cultures , and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology
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Livestock Crush
A CATTLE CRUSH (in UK , New Zealand , Ireland and Australia ), SQUEEZE CHUTE ( North America ), STANDING STOCK, or simply STOCK (North America, Ireland ) is a strongly built stall or cage for holding cattle , horses , or other livestock safely while they are examined , marked, or given veterinary treatment. Cows may be made to suckle calves in a crush. For the safety of the animal and the people attending it, a close-fitting crush may be used to ensure the animal stands "stock still". The overall purpose of a crush is to hold an animal still to minimise the risk of injury to both the animal and the operator while work on the animal is performed
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Standing Crop
A STANDING CROP is the total dried biomass of the living organisms present in a given environment. CONTENTS * 1 See also * 2 Bibliography * 3 References * 4 External links SEE ALSO * Biomass (ecology) * Net Primary Production BIBLIOGRAPHY * Ackley, S. F.; Buck, K. R.; Taguchi, S. (1979). " Standing crop of algae in the sea ice of the Weddell Sea region". _Deep-Sea Research Part A: Oceanographic Research Papers_. 26 (3): 269–281. doi :10.1016/0198-0149(79)90024-4 . * Boudouresque CF (1973) _Les peuplements sciaphiles ; Recherches de bionomie analytique, structurale et expérimentale sur les peuplements benthiques sciaphiles de Méditerranée occidentale (fraction algale)_. Bulletin du Muséum d'histoire naturelle, 33, 147, PDF, 80 pages. * Campbell, Reece, Urry, Cain, et al. (2011) 9th ed. Biology. Benjamin Cummings. pg 1221 * Fausch, K. D., Hawkes, C. L., Larkum, A. W. D. (1983)
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Population
A POPULATION is all the organisms of the same group or species , which live in a particular geographical area , and have the capability of interbreeding. The area that is used to define a sexual population is defined as the area where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area, and where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology , population refers to a collection of humans . Demography
Demography
is a social science which entails the statistical study of human populations
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Number Density
In physics , astronomy , chemistry , biology and geography , NUMBER DENSITY (symbol: _n_ or _ρ__N_) is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects (particles , molecules , phonons , cells , galaxies , etc.) in physical space: three-dimensional volumetric number density, two-dimensional areal number density, or one-dimensional line number density. Population density is an example of areal number density. The term NUMBER CONCENTRATION (symbol: _C_, to avoid confusion with amount of substance _n_) is sometimes used in chemistry for the same quantity, particularly when comparing with other concentrations
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Living Organisms
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, _organismos_) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
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Human
† _ Homo sapiens idaltu _ White _et al._, 2003 _ Homo sapiens sapiens _ _ Homo sapiens _ population density SYNONYMS Species synonymy * _aethiopicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _americanus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _arabicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _aurignacensis_ Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 * _australasicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _cafer_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _capensis_ Broom, 1917 * _columbicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _cro-magnonensis_ Gregory, 1921 * _drennani_ Kleinschmidt, 1931 * _eurafricanus_ (Sergi, 1911) * _grimaldiensis_ Gregory, 1921 * _grimaldii_ Lapouge, 1906 * _hottentotus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _hyperboreus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _indicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _japeticus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _melaninus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _monstrosus_ Linnaeus, 1758 * _neptunianus_ Bory de St
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Extinction Vortex
EXTINCTION VORTICES are a class of models through which conservation biologists , geneticists and ecologists can understand the dynamics of and categorize extinctions in the context of their causes. Developed by M. E. Gilpin and M. E. Soulé in their (now) famous 1986 paper _Minimum viable populations: Processes of species extinction,_ there are currently four classes of extinction vortices. The first two (R and D) deal with environmental factors that have an effect on the ecosystem or community level, such as disturbance , pollution , habitat loss etc. Whereas the second two (F and A) deal with genetic factors such as inbreeding depression and outbreeding depression , genetic drift etc. TYPES OF VORTICES * R VORTEX: The R vortex is initiated when there is a disturbance which facilitates a lowering of population size (N) and a corresponding increase in variability (Var(r))
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Allee Effect
The ALLEE EFFECT is a phenomenon in biology characterized by a correlation between population size or density and the mean individual fitness (often measured as _per capita _ population growth rate ) of a population or species. CONTENTS * 1 History and background * 2 Definition * 2.1 Component vs. demographic Allee effects * 2.2 Strong vs
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Inbreeding
INBREEDING is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically . By analogy, the term is used in human reproduction , but more commonly refers to the genetic disorders and other consequences that may arise from incestuous sexual relationships and consanguinity . Inbreeding
Inbreeding
results in homozygosity , which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. This generally leads to a decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression ), which is its ability to survive and reproduce. An individual who inherits such deleterious traits is referred to as _inbred_. The avoidance of expression of such deleterious recessive alleles caused by inbreeding, via inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, is the main selective reason for outcrossing
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Monaco
MONACO (/ˈmɒnəkoʊ/ (_ listen ); French pronunciation: ​ ), officially the PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO (French : Principauté de Monaco_), is a sovereign city-state , country and microstate located on the French Riviera in Western Europe . France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea . Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 (0.78 sq mi) and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2016. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest and second most densely populated country in the world . Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km (3.40 mi), a coastline of 3.83 km (2.38 mi), and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m (1,859 and 382 yd)
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Southern Europe
SOUTHERN EUROPE is the southern region of the European continent . Most definitions of Southern Europe, also known as MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE, include the countries of the Iberian peninsula ( Spain and Portugal ), the Italian peninsula , Greece and Malta . The definition of Southern Europe may include the entirety of Southeast Europe or the Balkan countries of Southeast Europe, which are geographically technically in the southern part of Europe but have particular historical, political, economic, and cultural backgrounds that distinguish them from the main Southern European countries and places them more in the category of Eastern Europe . Geographic features of Southern European countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea European sub-regions according to EuroVoc (the thesaurus of the European Union )
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Mongolia
MONGOLIA /mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ ( listen ) (Mongolian : Монгол Улс in Mongolian Cyrillic ; ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ in Mongolian script ; literally: MONGOL STATE) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia . Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia , and that term is sometimes used to refer to the Mongolian People\'s Republic . It is located between China to the south and Russia to the north. While it does not share a border with Kazakhstan , Mongolia is separated from it by only 36.76 kilometers (22.84 mi). At 1,564,116 square kilometers (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the 18th largest country in the world by land mass and has a population of around three million people
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Cartogram
A CARTOGRAM is a map in which some thematic mapping variable – such as travel time, population, or Gross National Product – is substituted for land area or distance. The geometry or space of the map is distorted in order to convey the information of this alternate variable. They are primarily used to display emphasis and for analysis as nomographs . Two common types of cartograms: area and distance cartograms. Cartograms have a fairly long history, with examples from the mid-1800s. CONTENTS * 1 Area cartograms * 2 Production * 2.1 Algorithms * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links AREA CARTOGRAMS Area cartogram of the United States , with each county rescaled in proportion to its population. Colors refer to the results of the 2004 U.S. presidential election popular vote
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