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Populated Places In Estonia
POPULATED PLACES IN ESTONIA (officially: settlement units ), are cities or settlement units of rural municipalities , but only cities have administrative functions. Settlement units are divided into settlements and urban regions (subdivisions of cities)
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Estonia
ESTONIA (/ɛˈstoʊniə/ (_ listen ); Estonian : Eesti_ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA (Estonian: _Eesti Vabariik_), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe . It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland , to the west by the Baltic Sea , to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). Across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden in the west and Finland in the north. The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands and islets in the Baltic Sea, covering 45,339 km2 (17,505 sq mi) of land and water, and is influenced by a humid continental climate . The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 6500 BC, with Finno-Ugric speakers – the linguistic ancestors of modern Estonians – arriving no later than around 1800 BC
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Municipality
A MUNICIPALITY is usually a single urban administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county , which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns , villages and hamlets . The term _municipality_ may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district . The term is derived from French _municipalité_ and Latin _municipalis_
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Estonian Language
ESTONIAN (_eesti keel_ ( listen )) is the official language of Estonia , spoken natively by about 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia. It belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic language family . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 History * 2.1 Estonian literature * 2.2 State language * 3 Dialects * 4 Writing system * 4.1 Alphabet * 4.2 Orthography * 5 Phonology * 6 Grammar * 7 Vocabulary * 7.1 _Ex nihilo_ lexical enrichment * 8 Sample text * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links CLASSIFICATIONEstonian belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages , along with Finnish , Karelian , and other nearby languages. The Uralic languages do not belong to the Indo-European languages . Estonian is distantly related to Hungarian and to the Sami languages
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Municipalities Of Estonia
A MUNICIPALITY (Estonian : omavalitsus, plural omavalitsused) is the smallest administrative subdivision of Estonia . Each municipality is a unit of self-government with its representative and executive bodies. The municipalities in Estonia cover the entire territory of the country. Municipalities in Estonia are of two types: URBAN MUNICIPALITIES or TOWNS (linnad, singular linn) and RURAL MUNICIPALITIES or PARISHES (vallad, singular vald). There is no other status distinction between them. Municipality may contain one or several settlements . All urban municipalities plus 6 rural municipalities contain only one settlement. Of the latter six, 5 are so-called "borough-parishes", consisting of one borough, while Ruhnu Parish consists of one village. Some municipalities are divided into districts
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List Of Cities And Towns In Estonia
The following is a list of cities and towns in Estonia
Estonia
. Many of these locations have been known, specially before 1918, by their German or Russian names, occasionally quite different from the Estonian ones. After the annexation of Estonia
Estonia
by the Soviet Union in 1940, although only Estonian names were used in Russian, the use of Russian language sources meant that some incorrect back-transliterations were used (e.g., Vilyandi, Pylva rather the correct Viljandi, Põlva)
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Counties Of Estonia
COUNTIES (Estonian : maakond, plural maakonnad) are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Estonia
Estonia
. Estonian territory is composed of 15 counties, including 13 on the mainland and 2 on islands. The government (maavalitsus) of each county is led by a maavanem (governor) who represents the national government (Vabariigi Valitsus) at the regional level. Governors are appointed by the national government for a term of five years. Each county is further divided into municipalities of two types: urban municipalities (towns, linnad) and rural municipalities (parishes, vallad). CONTENTS * 1 List of counties * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links LIST OF COUNTIES Population
Population
figures are those of 1 January 2016. List of counties of Estonia
Estonia
Coat of arms COUNTY CAPITAL Area
Area
(km2) POPULATION Pop. density (inhab
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Index Of Estonia-related Articles
This page list topics related to Estonia
Estonia

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History Of Estonia
The HISTORY OF ESTONIA forms a part of the history of Europe . Humans settled in the region of Estonia
Estonia
near the end of the last glacial era , beginning from around 8500 BC. Before German crusaders invaded in the early 13th century, proto- Estonians
Estonians
of ancient Estonia
Estonia
worshipped spirits of nature. Starting with the Northern Crusades
Northern Crusades
in the Middle Ages, Estonia
Estonia
became a battleground for centuries where Denmark, Germany, Russia, Sweden
Sweden
and Poland
Poland
fought their many wars over controlling the important geographical position of the country as a gateway between East and West
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Timeline Of Estonian History
This is a TIMELINE OF ESTONIAN HISTORY, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Estonia
Estonia
and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Estonia
Estonia
. See also the list of rulers of Estonia
Estonia
. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries
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Ancient Estonia
ANCIENT ESTONIA refers to a period covering History of Estonia
History of Estonia
from the middle of the 8th millennium BC
8th millennium BC
until the conquest and subjugation of the Estonian people in the first quarter of the 13th century during the Danish Northern Crusades
Northern Crusades
. CONTENTS * 1 The Mesolithic Period * 2 The Neolithic Period * 3 Late Neolithic - Chalcolithic * 4 The Bronze Age
Bronze Age
* 5 The Iron Age * 6 Early Middle Ages * 7 Sources * 8 References THE MESOLITHIC PERIOD Tools made by Kunda culture, the Estonian History Museum The region has been populated since the end of the last glacial era, about 10,000 BC. The earliest traces of human settlement in Estonia are connected with Kunda culture
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Livonian Crusade
Crusaders
Crusaders
* Sword-Brothers * Livonian Order * Denmark
Denmark
*
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Danish Estonia
DANISH ESTONIA, or HERTUGDøMMET ESTLAND is the name given to the territories in present-day Estonia
Estonia
that were ruled by Denmark
Denmark
during the 13th–14th centuries and again in the 16th–17th centuries. Denmark
Denmark
rose as a great military and mercantile power in the 12th century. It had an interest to end the frequent Estonian Viking attacks that threatened its Baltic trade. Danish fleets attacked Estonia
Estonia
in 1170, 1194, and 1197. In 1206, King Valdemar II and archbishop Andreas Sunonis led a raid on Ösel island ( Saaremaa ). The Kings of Denmark
Denmark
laid a claim on Estonia
Estonia
as their possession, which was recognised by the pope
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Terra Mariana
TERRA MARIANA (Medieval Latin for 'Land of Mary ') was the official name for MEDIEVAL LIVONIA or OLD LIVONIA (German : Alt-Livland, Estonian : Vana-Liivimaa, Latvian : Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia . It was established on 2 February 1207, as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire but lost this status in 1215 when proclaimed by Pope Innocent III as directly subject to the Holy See
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Livonian Order
The LIVONIAN ORDER was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order , formed in 1237. It was later a member of the Livonian Confederation , from 1435 to 1561. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Masters of the Livonian Order
Livonian Order
* 3 Commanderies of the Livonian Order
Livonian Order
* 3.1 Estonia
Estonia
* 3.2 Latvia * 4 References HISTORYThe order was formed from the remnants of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword after their defeat by Samogitians in 1236 at the Battle of Schaulen (Saule) . They were incorporated into the Teutonic Knights and became known as the Livonian Order
Livonian Order
in 1237
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Baltic Germans
Estonia
Estonia
: 1,945 Historically Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
, Governorate of Courland , Governorate of Estonia
Estonia
, Governorate of Livonia Since 1945 virtually assimilated into post-war Germany , Canada
Canada
, small numbers in Latvia
Latvia
and Estonia
Estonia

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