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Polymer
A polymer (/ˈpɒlɪmər/;[2][3] Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties,[4] both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life.[5] Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers
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Latex
La TeX
TeX
(/ˈlɑːtɛx/ LAH-tekh or /ˈleɪtɛx/ LAY-tekh;[1] a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.[2] When writing, the writer uses plain text as opposed to the formatted text found in WYSIWYG
WYSIWYG
("what you see is what you get") word processors like Microsoft Word, LibreOffice Writer
LibreOffice Writer
and Apple Pages. The writer uses markup tagging conventions to define the general structure of a document (such as article, book, and letter), to stylise text throughout a document (such as bold and italics), and to add citations and cross-references. A TeX
TeX
distribution such as TeX
TeX
Live or Mik TeX
TeX
is used to produce an output file (such as PDF
PDF
or DVI) suitable for printing or digital distribution
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Chemical Bond
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions as in ionic bonds; or through the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonds. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" or "primary bond" such as metallic, covalent or ionic bonds and "weak bonds" or "secondary bond" such as dipole–dipole interactions, the London dispersion force
London dispersion force
and hydrogen bonding. Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond
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Covalent
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms
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Styrofoam
Styrofoam
Styrofoam
is a trademarked brand of closed-cell extruded polystyrene foam (XPS), commonly called "Blue Board" manufactured as foam continuous building insulation board used in walls, roofs, and foundations as thermal insulation and water barrier
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Toughness
In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.[1] One definition of material toughness is the amount of energy per unit volume that a material can absorb before rupturing. It is also defined as a material's resistance to fracture when stressed. Toughness requires a balance of strength and ductility.[1]Contents1 Mathematical definition 2 Toughness tests 3 Unit of toughness 4 Toughness and strength 5 See also 6 ReferencesMathematical definition[edit] Toughness can be determined by integrating the stress–strain curve.[1] It is the energy of mechanical deformation per unit volume prior to fracture
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Small Molecule
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons[1]) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm. Most drugs are small molecules. Larger structures such as nucleic acids and proteins, and many polysaccharides are not small molecules, although their constituent monomers (ribo- or deoxyribonucleotides, amino acids, and monosaccharides, respectively) are often considered small molecules. Small molecules may be used as research tools to probe biological function as well as leads in the development of new therapeutic agents. Some can inhibit a specific function of a protein or disrupt protein–protein interactions.[2] Pharmacology
Pharmacology
usually restricts the term "small molecule" to molecules that bind specific biological macromolecules and acts as an effector, altering the activity or function of the target
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Relative Molecular Mass
Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule. It is calculated as the sum of the atomic weights of each constituent element multiplied by the number of atoms of that element in the molecular formula. The molecular mass of small to medium size molecules, measured by mass spectrometry, determines stoichiometry. For large molecules such as proteins, methods based on viscosity and light-scattering can be used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic data are not available.Contents1 Definitions 2 Determination2.1 Mass spectrometry 2.2 Hydrodynamic methods 2.3 Static light scattering3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinitions[edit] Both atomic and molecular masses are usually obtained relative to the mass of the isotope 12C (carbon 12), which by definition[1] is equal to 12
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Molecular Mass
Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule. It is calculated as the sum of the atomic weights of each constituent element multiplied by the number of atoms of that element in the molecular formula. The molecular mass of small to medium size molecules, measured by mass spectrometry, determines stoichiometry. For large molecules such as proteins, methods based on viscosity and light-scattering can be used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic data are not available.Contents1 Definitions 2 Determination2.1 Mass spectrometry 2.2 Hydrodynamic methods 2.3 Static light scattering3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinitions[edit] Both atomic and molecular masses are usually obtained relative to the mass of the isotope 12C (carbon 12), which by definition[1] is equal to 12
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Phenol Formaldehyde Resin
Phenol
Phenol
formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde. Used as the basis for Bakelite, PFs were the first commercial synthetic resins (plastics). They have been widely used for the production of molded products including billiard balls, laboratory countertops, and as coatings and adhesives. They were at one time the primary material used for the production of circuit boards but have been largely replaced with epoxy resins and fiberglass cloth, as with fire-resistant FR-4 circuit board materials. There are two main production methods
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Amber
Amber
Amber
is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic
Neolithic
times.[2] Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects.[3] Amber
Amber
is used in jewelry. It has also been used as a healing agent in folk medicine. There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents
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Molecule
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.[4][5][6][7][8] Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge. However, in quantum physics, organic chemistry, and biochemistry, the term molecule is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions. In the kinetic theory of gases, the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are monoatomic molecules.[9] A molecule may be homonuclear, that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element, as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear, a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O)
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Wool
Wool
Wool
is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.[1] Wool
Wool
mainly consists of protein together with a few percent lipids. In this regard it is chemically quite distinct from the more dominant textile, cotton, which is mainly cellulose.[1]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Processing2.1 Shearing 2.2 Scouring3 Fineness and yield 4 History 5 Production 6 Marketing6.1 Australia 6.2 Other countries7 Yarn 8 Uses 9 Events 10 See also10.1 Production 10.2 Processing 10.3 Refined products 10.4 Organizations 10.5 Miscellaneous wool11 References 12 External linksCharacteristics[edit]Champion hogget fleece, Walcha Show Wool
Wool
is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin
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Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Jöns Jacob Berzelius
(Swedish: [jœns ˌjɑːkɔb bæɹˈseːliɵs]; 20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist. Berzelius is considered, along with Robert Boyle, John Dalton, and Antoine Lavoisier, to be one of the founders of modern chemistry.[1] Berzelius began his career as a physician but his researches in physical chemistry were of lasting significance in the development of the subject. He is especially noted for his determination of atomic weights; his experiments led to a more complete depiction of the principles of stoichiometry, or the field of chemical combining proportions
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Rubber
Natural rubber, also called India
India
rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia
Indonesia
are two of the leading rubber producers. Forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from the rubber tree or others. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions in the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called "tapping". The latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup
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Biophysics
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems. Biophysics covers all scales of biological organization, from molecular to organismic and populations. Biophysical research shares significant overlap with biochemistry, physical chemistry, nanotechnology, bioengineering, computational biology, biomechanics and systems biology. The term biophysics was originally introduced by Karl Pearson
Karl Pearson
in 1892.[1][2]Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Focus as a subfield 4 See also 5 References5.1 Citations 5.2 Sources6 External linksOverview[edit] Molecular biophysics
Molecular biophysics
typically addresses biological questions similar to those in biochemistry and molecular biology, seeking to find the physical underpinnings of biomolecular phenomena
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