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Polities
A polity is any kind of political entity. It is a group of people who are collectively united by a self-reflected cohesive force such as identity, who have a capacity to mobilize resources, and are organized by some form of institutionalized hierarchy.[1]Frontispiece of LeviathanContents1 Overview 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksOverview[edit] A polity can be manifested in many different forms, such as a state, an empire, an international organization, a political organisation and other identifiable, resource-manipulating organisational structures. A polity, like a state, does not need to be a sovereign unit
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Polity (other)
Polity
Polity
is a general term that refers to political organization of a group. Polity
Polity
may also refer to:Ecclesiastical polity, the system of church governance
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
(/hɒbz/; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
of Malmesbury,[2] was an English philosopher who is con
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Concept
Concepts are the fundamental building blocks of our thoughts and beliefs. They play an important role in all aspects of cognition.[1][2]When the mind makes a generalization such as the concept of tree, it extracts similarities from numerous examples; the simplification enables higher-level thinking.Concepts arise as abstractions or generalisations from experience; from the result of a transformation of existing ideas; or from innate properties.[3][unreliable source?] A concept is instantiated (reified) by all of its actual or potential instances, whether these are things in the real world or other ideas. Concepts are studied as components of human cognition in the cognitive science disciplines of linguistics, psychology and philosophy, where an ongoing debate asks whether all cognition must occur through concepts
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Body Politic
The body politic is a medieval metaphor that likens a nation to a corporation[2] which had serious historical repercussions throughout recent history and therefore giving the Crown: "As a legal entity today the Crown as executive is regarded as a corporation sole or aggregate",[3][4] a corporate entity.[5][6][7] Maitland argues that the Crown (as a legal term) is a convenient cover for ignorance and traces the legal term Crown as corporation sole originally from the 16th century and argues that it was both a political and legal ploy originally reserved for the monarch of the day with the combination of medieval Roman law amalgamated into the early medieval domain of early church property law.[8][9] The modern understanding of the concept means a body politic comprises all the people in a particular country considered as a single group
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Emperor
An emperor (through Old French
Old French
empereor from Latin imperator[1]) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), mother (empress dowager), or a woman who rules in her own right (empress regnant). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe
Europe
the title of Emperor
Emperor
has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope, due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe
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Monarch
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.[1][2] A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means
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Dictator
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A state of which is ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (see Roman dictator
Roman dictator
and justitium).[2] Like the term "tyrant" (which was originally a respectable Ancient Greek title), and to a lesser degree "autocrat", "dictator" came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive, even abusive rule, yet it had rare modern titular use. In modern usage, the term "dictator" is generally used to describe a leader who holds and/or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power
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Cabinet (government)
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. They are usually called ministers, but in some jurisdictions are sometimes called secretaries. The functions of a cabinet are varied: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are typically the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures. In some countries, particularly those that use a parliamentary system (e.g., the UK), the Cabinet collectively decides the government's direction, especially in regard to legislation passed by the parliament
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Sedentism
In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism[1]) is the practice of living in one place for a long time. As of 2018[update], the majority of people belong to sedentary cultures. In evolutionary anthropology and archaeology, sedentism takes on a slightly different sub-meaning, often applying to the transition from nomadic society to a lifestyle that involves remaining in one place permanently
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Liberal Democracy
Liberal democracy
Liberal democracy
is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism. Also called Western democracy, it is characterised by elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society, a market economy with private property and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties and political freedoms for all people
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Democracy
Democracy
Democracy
(Greek: δημοκρατία dēmokratía, literally "rule of the people"), in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament.[1] Democracy
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Politeia
Politeia (πολιτεία) is an ancient Greek word used in Greek political thought, especially that of Plato
Plato
and Aristotle. Derived from the word polis ("city-state"), it has a range of meanings[example needed], from "the rights of citizens" to a "form of government".Contents1 English translations of the Greek word 2 Politeia in the work of the authors of Antiquity2.1 Plato
Plato
and Cicero 2.2 Aristotle3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksEnglish translations of the Greek word[edit] According to Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon a meaning of politeia is "the conditions and rights of the citizen, or citizenship", analogous to the Latin
Latin
civitas.[1] Politeia,[2] in Greek means the community of citizens in a city / state
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Political System
A political system is a system of politics and government. It is usually compared to the legal system, economic system, cultural system, and other social systems. However, this is a very simplified view of a much more complex system of categories involving the questions of who should have authority and what the government's influence on its people and economy should be.Contents1 Anthropological forms 2 Sociology 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksAnthropological forms[edit] Anthropologists generally recognize four kinds of political systems, two of which are uncentralized and two of which are centralized.[1]Uncentralized systemsBand societySmall family group, no larger than an extended family or clan; it has been defined as consisting of no more than 30 to 50 individuals. A band can cease to exist if only a small group walks out.TribeGenerally larger, consisting of many families
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Kokutai
Kokutai (国体, "national body/structure of state") is a concept in the Japanese language
Japanese language
translatable as "system of government", "sovereignty", "national identity, essence, and character", "national polity; body politic; national entity; basis for the Emperor's sovereignty; Japanese constitution". The word is also a short form of the (unrelated) name for the National Sports Festival of Japan.Contents1 Etymology 2 Pre-1868 3 From 1868 to 19453.1 From 1868 to 1890 3.2 Meiji Constitution 3.3 Taishō Democracy 3.4 Under the Public Safety Preservation Law4 Post-1945 5 See also 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] Kokutai originated as a Sino-Japanese loanword from Chinese guoti (Chinese: 國體; pinyin: guótǐ; "state political system; national governmental structure"). The Japanese compound word joins koku (國, "country; nation; province; land") and tai (體, "body; substance; object; structure; form; style")
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