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Political Journalism
POLITICAL JOURNALISM is a broad branch of journalism that includes coverage of all aspects of politics and political science , although the term usually refers specifically to coverage of civil governments and political power . Political journalism
Political journalism
aims to provide voters with the information to formulate their own opinion and participate in community, local or national matters that will affect them. According to Edward Morrissey in an opinion article from theweek.com, political journalism frequently includes opinion journalism, as current political events can be bias in their reporting. The information provided includes facts, its perspective is subjective and leans towards one viewpoint. Brendan Nyhan and John Sides argue that "Political journalists who report on politics are frequently unfamiliar with political science research or question its relevance to their work"
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Journalism
JOURNALISM is the production and distribution of reports on the interaction of events, facts, ideas, and people that are the "news of the day" and that impacts society to at least some degree. The word applies to the occupation (professional or not), the methods of gathering information, and the organizing literary styles. Journalistic media include: print, television, radio, Internet , and, in the past, newsreels . Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism varies between countries. In some nations, the news media is controlled by a government intervention, and is not a fully independent body. In others, the news media is independent from the government but the profit motive is in tension with constitutional protections of freedom of the press . Access to freely available information gathered by independent and competing journalistic enterprises with transparent editorial standards can enable citizens to effectively participate in the political process
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News
NEWS is information about current events. Journalists provide news through many different media , based on word of mouth , printing , postal systems , broadcasting , electronic communication , and also on their own testimony , as witnesses of relevant events. Common topics for news reports include war, government, politics, education, health, the environment, economy, business, and entertainment, as well as athletic events, quirky or unusual events. Government proclamations, concerning royal ceremonies, laws, taxes, public health, criminals, have been dubbed news since ancient times. Humans exhibit a nearly universal desire to learn and share news, which they satisfy by talking to each other and sharing information. Technological and social developments, often driven by government communication and espionage networks, have increased the speed with which news can spread, as well as influenced its content
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News Style
NEWS STYLE, JOURNALISTIC STYLE or NEWS WRITING STYLE is the prose style used for news reporting in media such as newspapers , radio and television . News style encompasses not only vocabulary and sentence structure , but also the way in which stories present the information in terms of relative importance, tone , and intended audience . The tense used for news style articles is past tense. News writing attempts to answer all the basic questions about any particular event—WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE AND WHY (the Five Ws ) and also often HOW—at the opening of the article. This form of structure is sometimes called the "inverted pyramid ", to refer to the decreasing importance of information in subsequent paragraphs. News stories also contain at least one of the following important characteristics relative to the intended audience: proximity, prominence, timeliness, human interest, oddity, or consequence
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Journalism Ethics And Standards
JOURNALISM ETHICS AND STANDARDS comprise principles of ethics and of good practice as applicable to the specific challenges faced by journalists . Historically and currently, this subset of media ethics is widely known to journalists as their professional "code of ethics" or the "canons of journalism". The basic codes and canons commonly appear in statements drafted by both professional journalism associations and individual print , broadcast , and online news organizations. While various existing codes have some differences, most share common elements including the principles of—truthfulness , accuracy , objectivity , impartiality , fairness and public accountability —as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent dissemination to the public
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Journalistic Objectivity
JOURNALISTIC OBJECTIVITY is a considerable notion within the discussion of journalistic professionalism . Journalistic objectivity may refer to fairness , disinterestedness , factuality , and nonpartisanship , but most often encompasses all of these qualities. First evolving as a practice in the 18th century , a number of critiques and alternatives to the notion have emerged since, fuelling ongoing and dynamic discourse surrounding the ideal of objectivity in journalism. Most newspapers and TV stations depend upon news agencies for their material, and each of the four major global agencies (Agence France-Presse (formerly the Havas agency), Associated Press , Reuters and Agencia EFE ) began with and continue to operate on a basic philosophy of providing a single objective news feed to all subscribers. That is, they do not provide separate feeds for conservative or liberal newspapers
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News Values
NEWS VALUES, sometimes called NEWS CRITERIA, determine how much prominence a news story is given by a media outlet, and the attention it is given by the audience. A. Boyd states that: " News journalism has a broadly agreed set of values, often referred to as 'newsworthiness'..." News values are not universal and can vary widely between different cultures. In Western practice, decisions on the selection and prioritization of news are made by editors on the basis of their experience and intuition, although analysis by J. Galtung and M. Ruge showed that several factors are consistently applied across a range of news organizations. Some of these factors are listed below, together with others put forward by Schlesinger and Bell
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Source (journalism)
In journalism , a SOURCE is a person, publication, or other record or document that gives timely information . Outside journalism, sources are sometimes known as "news sources". Examples of sources include official records, publications or broadcasts, officials in government or business, organizations or corporations, witnesses of crime, accidents or other events, and people involved with or affected by a news event or issue. According to Shoemaker (1996) and McQuail (1994), there are a multitude of factors that tend to condition the acceptance of sources as bona fide by investigative journalists. Reporters are expected to develop and cultivate sources, especially if they regularly cover a specific topic, known as a "beat". Beat reporters must, however, be cautious of becoming too close to their sources. Reporters often, but not always, give greater leeway to sources with little experience
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Defamation
DEFAMATION — also CALUMNY, VILIFICATION, and TRADUCEMENT — is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of an individual person, business , product , group , government , religion , or nation . Under common law , to constitute defamation, a claim must generally be false and must have been made to someone other than the person defamed. Some common law jurisdictions also distinguish between spoken defamation, called SLANDER, and defamation in other media such as printed words or images, called LIBEL. False light laws protect against statements which are not technically false, but which are misleading. In some civil law jurisdictions, defamation is treated as a crime rather than a civil wrong
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Editorial Independence
EDITORIAL INDEPENDENCE is the freedom of editors to make decisions without interference from the owners of a publication . Editorial independence is tested, for instance, if a newspaper runs articles that may be unpopular with its advertising clientele or critical of its ownership. SEE ALSO * Journalism portal * Embedded journalism * Freedom of the press , the freedom from interference by governments * Media manipulation * Objectivity (journalism) RELATED CONTROVERSIES * Fox television and Monsanto Company This story is featured at length in the documentaries The Corporation and Outfoxed .REFERENCES * ^ "Blowing the Whistle On Your Own Station.". _Columbia Journalism Review _. March 1, 2001. Retrieved 2008-09-10. * ^ Schweitzer, Sarah (August 19, 2000). "Reporter wins suit over firing". _ St. Petersburg Times _. Retrieved 2008-09-10
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Journalism School
A JOURNALISM SCHOOL is a school or department, usually part of an established university , where journalists are trained. An increasingly used term for a journalism department, school or college is 'J-School'. Many of the most famous and respected journalists of the past and present had no formal training in journalism , but learned their craft on the job, often starting out as _copy boys _/_copy girls_. Today, in many parts of the world it is usual for journalists to first complete university -level training which incorporates both technical skills such as research skills, interviewing technique and shorthand and academic studies in media theory , cultural studies and ethics
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Index Of Journalism Articles
Articles related to the field of JOURNALISM include: Contents : * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z 0–9 * 24-hour news cycle * 2003 invasion of Iraq media coverage A * ABC News * Advocacy journalism *
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Arts Journalism
ARTS JOURNALISM is a branch of journalism concerned with the reporting and discussion of the arts, including but is not limited to the visual arts , film , literature , music , theater , and architecture . Traditionally, journalists and critics writing about the arts have a background in writing and the arts; apart from baccalaureate studies in literary criticism, the humanities, and art history, there is no other formal advanced journalistic training in this field. For instance, an art magazine is a publication whose main topic is art, contributed to by people from the practice of artmaking, curating, critical theory, or teaching, among other functions, whether they be institution-based, academe-based or independent and self-taught. Such a magazine can be in print form, online, or both, and may be aimed at different audiences, including galleries, buyers, amateur or professional artists and the general public
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Business Journalism
BUSINESS JOURNALISM is the branch of journalism that tracks, records, analyzes and interprets the business, economic and financial activities and changes that take place in a society. Topics widely cover the entire purview of all business activities related to the economy of a nation. This area of journalism covers news and feature articles about people, places and issues related to the field of business . Most newspapers, magazines, radio, and television news shows carry a business segment. However, detailed and in depth business journalism can be found in publications, radio, and television channels dedicated specifically to business and financial journalism. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Personnel * 3 Scope * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORY Business journalism began as early as the Middle Ages , to help well-known trading families communicate with each other
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Data-driven Journalism
DATA-DRIVEN JOURNALISM, often shortened to "ddj", is a term in use since 2009, to describe a journalistic process based on analyzing and filtering large data sets for the purpose of creating a news story. Main drivers for this process are newly available resources such as open source software , open access publishing and open data . This approach to journalism builds on older practices, most notably on CAR (acronym for "computer-assisted reporting") a label used mainly in the US for decades. Other labels for partially similar approaches are "precision journalism", based on a book by Philipp Meyer, published in 1972, where he advocated the use of techniques from social sciences in researching stories. Data-driven journalism
Data-driven journalism
has an even wider approach. At the core the process builds on the growing availability of open data that is freely available online and analyzed with open source tools
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