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Polis
Polis
Polis
(/ˈpɒlɪs/; Greek: πόλις pronounced [pólis]), plural poleis (/ˈpɒleɪz/, πόλεις [póleːs]), literally means city in Greek. It can also mean a body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens
Classical Athens
and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as "city-state". These cities consisted of a fortified city centre built on an acropolis or harbor and controlled surrounding territories of land (khôra). The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city, state, and citizenship and persisted (though with decreasing influence) well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin
Latin
word was civitas, also meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity
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Form Of The Good
Plato
Plato
describes the "Form of the Good", or more literally "the idea of the good" (ἡ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ἰδέα), in his dialogue the Republic (508e2–3), speaking through the character of Socrates. Plato
Plato
introduces several forms in his works, but identifies the Form of the Good as the superlative. This form is the one that allows a philosopher-in-training to advance to a philosopher-king. It cannot be clearly seen or explained, but once it is recognized, it is the form that allows one to realize all the other forms.Contents1 Uses in The Republic 2 Scholarly analysis2.1 Aristotle's criticism 2.2 Other criticisms3 Influence 4 See also 5 ReferencesUses in The Republic[edit] The first references that are seen in The Republic to the Form of the Good are within the conversation between Glaucon
Glaucon
and Socrates
Socrates
(454 c–d)
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Ancient Greek Clubs
Ancient Greek clubs (Greek: ἑταιρείαι, hetaireiai) were associations of ancient Greeks who were united by a common interest or goal.Contents1 Types 2 Political 3 Religious3.1 Organisation4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingTypes[edit] The earliest reference of clubs in ancient Greece
Greece
appears in the law of Solon, which is quoted in the Digest of Justinian I
Justinian I
(47.22). This law guaranteed the administrative independence of such associations if they kept within the bounds of the law. The Digest mentions these associations for religious practices, burial, trade, privateering, and communal meals. It also mentions demes, citizen groups based on subdivisions of land, and phratries, kinship groups
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Greek Colonies
Colonies in antiquity
Colonies in antiquity
were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"),[1] not from a territory-at-large
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Ship Of State
The Ship
Ship
of State is a famous and oft-cited metaphor put forth by Plato
Plato
in Book VI of the Republic
Republic
(488e–489d). It likens the governance of a city-state to the command of a naval vessel and ultimately argues that the only men fit to be captain of this ship (Greek: ναῦς) are philosopher kings, benevolent men with absolute power who have access to the Form of the Good. The origins of the metaphor can be traced back to the lyric poet Alcaeus (frs
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Philosopher King
According to Plato, a philosopher king is a ruler who possesses both a love of knowledge, as well as intelligence, reliability, and a willingness to live a simple life. Such are the rulers of his utopian city Kallipolis
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Oligarchy
Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); from ὀλίγος (olígos), meaning 'few', and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning 'to rule or to command')[1][2][3] is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. These people might be distinguished by nobility, wealth, family ties, education or corporate, religious or military control. Such states are often controlled by families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next, but inheritance is not a necessary condition for the application of this term. Throughout history, oligarchies have often been tyrannical, relying on public obedience or oppression to exist
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Archon
Archon
Archon
(Greek: ἄρχων, árchon, plural: ἄρχοντες, árchontes) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office
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Gymnasium (ancient Greece)
The gymnasium (Greek: gymnasion) in Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games. It was also a place for socializing and engaging in intellectual pursuits. The name comes from the Ancient Greek term gymnós meaning "naked". Athletes competed nude, a practice which was said to encourage aesthetic appreciation of the male body, and to be a tribute to the gods. Gymnasia and palestrae (wrestling schools) were under the protection and patronage of Heracles, Hermes
Hermes
and, in Athens, Theseus.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Organization2.1 Origins, rules, and customs 2.2 Historical development 2.3 Organization in Athens 2.4 Construction3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word gymnasium is the latinisation of the Greek noun γυμνάσιον (gymnasion), "gymnastic school", in pl
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Festival
A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures. It is often marked as a local or national holiday, mela, or eid. Next to religion and folklore, a significant origin is agricultural. Food is such a vital resource that many festivals are associated with harvest time. Religious commemoration and thanksgiving for good harvests are blended in events that take place in autumn, such as Halloween
Halloween
in the northern hemisphere and Easter
Easter
in the southern. Festivals often serve to fulfill specific communal purposes, especially in regard to commemoration or thanksgiving. The celebrations offer a sense of belonging for religious, social, or geographical groups, contributing to group cohesiveness
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Altar
An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican
Anglican
churches. Altars are usually found at shrines, and they can be located in temples, churches and other places of worship. Today they are used particularly in Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Shinto, Taoism. Also seen in Neopaganism
Neopaganism
and Ceremonial Magic. Judaism
Judaism
used such a structure until the destruction of the Second Temple
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Hippodamian Plan
Hippodamus of Miletus
Miletus
(/hɪˈpɒdəməs/; Greek: Ἱππόδαμος ὁ Μιλήσιος, Hippodamos ho Milesios; 498 – 408 BC), was an ancient Greek architect, urban planner, physician, mathematician, meteorologist and philosopher, who is considered to be "the father of European urban planning",[1] the namesake of the "Hippodamian Plan" (grid plan) of city layout. Hippodamus was born in Miletus
Miletus
and lived during the 5th century BC, on the spring of the Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
classical epoch. His father was Euryphon. According to Aristotle, Hippodamus was the first author who wrote upon the theory of government, without any knowledge of practical affairs.[2] His plans of Greek cities were characterised by order and regularity in contrast to the intricacy and confusion common to cities of that period, even Athens
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Megaron
The megaron (/ˈmɛɡəˌrɒn/; Ancient Greek: μέγαρον), plural megara /ˈmɛɡərə/, was the great hall in ancient Greek palace complexes. It was a rectangular hall, fronted by an open, two-columned porch, and a more or less central, open hearth vented though an oculus in the roof above it and surrounded by four columns. It is believed that the ruler of the area, called a wanax, had his throne placed in room containing the hearth
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Helladic Period
Helladic is a modern archaeological term meant to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland Greece
Greece
during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(c. 3200–1050 BC). The term is commonly used in archaeology and art history. It was intended to complement two parallel terms, "Cycladic", identifying approximately the same sequence with reference to the Aegean Bronze
Bronze
Age, and "Minoan", with reference to the civilization of Crete. The scheme applies primarily to pottery and is a relative dating system. The pottery at any given site typically can be ordered into "Early", "Middle" and "Late" on the basis of style and technique. The total time window allowed for the site is then divided into these periods proportionately. As it turns out, there is a correspondence between "Early" over all Greece, etc
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Phylai
Phyle (Greek φυλή phulē, "clan, race, people"; pl. phylai, φυλαί; derived from ancient Greek φύεσθαι "to descend, to originate") is an ancient Greek term for clan or tribe. They were usually ruled by a basileus. Some of them can be classified by their geographic location: the Geleontes, the Argadeis, the Hopletes, and the Agikoreis, in Ionia ; the Hylleans, the Pamphyles, the Dymanes, in the Dorian region.Contents1 Attic tribes 2 The ten tribes of Thurii 3 Footnotes 4 ReferencesAttic tribes[edit] The best-attested new system was that created by Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
for Attica
Attica
in or just after 508 BC. The landscape was regarded as comprising three zones: urban, coastal and inland
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