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Points Of The Compass
The POINTS OF THE COMPASS, specifically on the compass rose , mark divisions of a compass ; such divisions may be referred to as "winds" or "directions". A compass point allows reference to a specific heading (or course or azimuth ) in a general or colloquial fashion, without having to compute or remember degrees. A compass is primarily divided into the four cardinal points —north , south , east , and west . These are often further subdivided by the addition of the four intercardinal (or ordinal) directions—northeast (NE) between north and east, southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW)—to indicate the eight principal winds. In meteorological usage, further intermediate points between cardinal and ordinal points, such as north-northeast (NNE) between north and northeast, are added to give the sixteen points of a wind compass
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Mediterranean Lingua Franca
The MEDITERRANEAN LINGUA FRANCA or SABIR was a pidgin language used as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th century. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Example of "Sabir" * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links HISTORY Lingua franca means literally "language of the Franks " in Late Latin , and originally referred specifically to the language that was used around the Eastern Mediterranean Sea as the main language of commerce . However, the terms "Franks" and "Frankish" were actually applied to all Western Europeans during the late Byzantine Period . Later, the meaning of lingua franca expanded to mean any bridge language . Its other name in the Mediterranean area was Sabir, deriving from a Romance base meaning "to know"
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Ligurian Language (Romance)
LIGURIAN (ligure or lengua ligure) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Liguria
Liguria
in Northern Italy
Italy
, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco
Monaco
and in the villages of Carloforte
Carloforte
and Calasetta
Calasetta
in Sardinia
Sardinia
. It is part of the Western Romance
Western Romance
language continuum . The Genoese (Zeneize), spoken in Genoa
Genoa
, the capital of Liguria, is the language's prestige dialect on which the standard is based. Ligurian has almost 500,000 native speakers, and is still widely spoken by many in Genoa
Genoa
and in many of the small towns and villages in the region. There are also many groups dedicated to the preservation of the language such as Associazione Culturale O Castello in Chiavari , which offers Ligurian (Genovese) language courses
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Venetian Language
VENETIAN or VENETAN (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language
Romance language
spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy, mostly in the Veneto
Veneto
region of Italy
Italy
, where most of the five million inhabitants can understand it. It is sometimes spoken and often well understood outside Veneto, in Trentino
Trentino
, Friuli
Friuli
, Venezia Giulia , Istria
Istria
, and some towns of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, Slovenia, Croatia
Croatia
and Brazil. Although referred to as an Italian dialect (Venetian diałeto, Italian dialetto) even by its speakers, Venetian is a separate language. Its precise place within the Romance language
Romance language
family is controversial; see below
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Sicilian Language
51-AAA-re & -rf (mainland 51-AAA-rc in Italian : Siciliano; also known as SICULO (siculu) or CALABRO-SICILIAN) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Sicily
Sicily
and its satellite islands. It is also spoken in southern and central Calabria
Calabria
(where it is called SOUTHERN CALABRO), in the southern parts of Apulia
Apulia
, Salento
Salento
(where it is known as Salentino ), and Campania
Campania
, on the Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
, where it is called Cilentano (Gordon, 2005 ). The Ethnologue (see below for more detail) describes Sicilian as being "distinct enough from Standard Italian to be considered a separate language" (Gordon ) and is recognized as a "minority language" by UNESCO
UNESCO

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Italian Language
ITALIAN ( italiano (help ·info ) or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language
Romance language
. By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy
Italy
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, San Marino , Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
). It used to have official status in Albania
Albania
, Malta
Malta
and Monaco
Monaco
, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Classical Compass Winds
In the ancient Mediterranean world , the CLASSICAL COMPASS WINDS were names for the points of geographic direction and orientation, in association with the winds as conceived of by the ancient Greeks and Romans . Ancient wind roses typically had twelve winds and thus twelve points of orientation, sometimes reduced to eight or increased to twenty-four. Originally conceived as a branch of meteorology , the classical wind rose had only a tentative relationship with actual navigation . The Classical 12-point wind rose was eventually displaced by the modern compass rose (8-point, 16-point and 32-point), adopted by seafarers during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

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South By Southwest
SOUTH BY SOUTHWEST (abbreviated as SXSW) is an annual conglomerate of film, interactive media , and music festivals and conferences that take place in mid-March in Austin, Texas
Austin, Texas
, United States. It began in 1987, and has continued to grow in both scope and size every year. In 2011, the conference lasted for 10 days with SXSW Interactive lasting for 5 days, Music for 6 days, and Film running concurrently for 9 days. SXSW is run by the company SXSW, LLC which organizes conferences, trade shows, festivals, and other events. In addition to the three main South by Southwest
South by Southwest
festivals, the company runs three other conferences, two in Austin: SXSWedu, a conference on educational innovation, and SXSW Eco, an environmental conference; and one in Las Vegas: SXSW V2V
SXSW V2V
, a conference focused on innovative startups
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Mediterranean Sea
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean , surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe
Southern Europe
and Anatolia , on the south by North Africa , and on the east by the Levant
Levant
. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years before being refilled by the Zanclean flood . The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin
Latin
mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land" (from medius, "middle" and terra, "land")
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Compass Point (other)
COMPASS POINT may refer to: * Cardinal direction
Cardinal direction
, north, south, east or west * Compass point
Compass point
, a direction on a traditional compass *
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Provençal Dialect
PROVENçAL /prɒvɒnˈsæl/ ( Occitan : Provençau or Prouvençau ) is a variety of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France
France
, mostly in Provence
Provence
. In the English -speaking world, the term Provençal has historically also been used to refer to all of Occitan, but is now mainly understood to refer to the variety spoken in Provence. Provençal is also the customary name given to the older version of the Occitan language used by the troubadours of medieval literature , while Old French or the langue d'oïl was limited to the northern areas of France. Thus the ISO 639-3 code for Old Occitan is . In 2007, all the ISO 639-3 codes for Occitan dialects, including for Provençal, were retired and merged into Occitan
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Catalan Language
CATALAN (/ˈkætəlæn/ ; autonym : català or ) is a Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia
Catalonia
, in northeastern modern Spain
Spain
. It is the national and only official language of Andorra , and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia
Catalonia
, the Balearic Islands and Valencia
Valencia
(where the language is known as Valencian ). It also has semi-official status in the commune of Alghero
Alghero
These territories are often called Catalan Countries
Catalan Countries
. Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees . 19th-century Spain
Spain
saw a Catalan literary revival , culminating in the early 1900s
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Navigation
NAVIGATION is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. The field of navigation includes four general categories: land navigation, marine navigation, aeronautic navigation, and space navigation. It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks. All navigational techniques involve locating the navigator's position compared to known locations or patterns. Navigation, in a broader sense, can refer to any skill or study that involves the determination of position and direction. In this sense, navigation includes orienteering and pedestrian navigation. For information about different navigation strategies that people use, visit human navigation
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TVMDC
TVMDC is a method for converting true, magnetic and compass headings. TVMDC is expressed as: True, variation, magnetic, deviation, compass. The most common use of the TVMDC method is correcting courses during nautical navigation. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Determine variation in North America * 3 Determine deviation * 4 Formula * 4.1 Examples * 4.2 Reverse * 5 References BACKGROUNDThe Geographic North Pole and the Magnetic North Pole are not exactly the same position on the earth. From any position on the globe, a direction can be determined to either the geographic north pole or to the magnetic north pole. These directions are expressed in degrees from 0-360, and also fractions of a degree. The difference between these two directions is known as magnetic variation . While a compass is installed in a vehicle or vessel, local anomalies of the vessel can introduce error into the direction that the compass points
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Wind Rose
A WIND ROSE is a graphic tool used by meteorologists to give a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Historically, wind roses were predecessors of the compass rose (found on maps ), as there was no differentiation between a cardinal direction and the wind which blew from such a direction. Using a polar coordinate system of gridding, the frequency of winds over a time period is plotted by wind direction, with color bands showing wind speed ranges. The direction of the longest spoke shows the wind direction with the greatest frequency. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Use * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY A medieval wind rose Before the development of the compass rose , a wind rose was included on maps in order to let the reader know which directions the 8 major winds (and sometimes 8 half winds and 16 quarter winds) blew within the plan view
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Bearing (navigation)
In navigation BEARING may refer, depending on the context, to any of: (A) the direction or course of motion itself; (B) the direction of a distant object relative to the current course (or the "change" in course that would be needed to get to that distant object); or (C), the angle away from North of a distant point as observed at the current point. Absolute bearing refers to the angle between the magnetic North (magnetic bearing) or true North (true bearing) and an object. For example, an object to the East would have an absolute bearing of 90 degrees. Relative bearing refers to the angle between the craft's forward direction, and the location of another object. For example, an object relative bearing of 0 degrees would be dead ahead; an object relative bearing 180 degrees would be behind. Bearings can be measured in mils or degrees
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