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Pocket Gopher
Cratogeomys Geomys
Geomys
Orthogeomys Pappogeomys Thomomys
Thomomys
Zygogeomys
Zygogeomys
POCKET GOPHERS, commonly referred to as GOPHERS, are burrowing rodents of the family Geomyidae. About 35 species of gophers live in Central and North America. They are commonly known for their extensive tunneling activities. Gophers are endemic to North and Central America. The name "pocket gopher" on its own may be used to refer to any of a number of genera within the family . These are the "true" gophers, but several ground squirrels in the distantly related family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
are often called gophers, as well. The origin of the word "gopher" is uncertain. French gaufre, meaning waffle , has been suggested, on account of the gopher's tunnels resembling the honeycomb-like pattern of holes in a waffle
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Muskogean Languages
MUSKOGEAN (also MUSKHOGEAN, MUSKOGEE) is an indigenous language family of the Southeastern United States . Though there is an ongoing debate concerning their interrelationships, the Muskogean languages are generally divided into two branches, Eastern Muskogean and Western Muskogean. They are agglutinative languages
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Soil
SOIL is a mixture of minerals , organic matter , gases, liquids, and countless organisms that together support life on Earth. Soil
Soil
is a natural body called the pedosphere which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage , supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth\'s atmosphere ; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. Soil
Soil
has been called the Skin of the Earth
Earth
as it interfaces with the lithosphere , the hydrosphere , the atmosphere , and the biosphere . The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates ground stone. Soil
Soil
consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution)
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Cheek
CHEEKS ( Latin
Latin
: buccae) constitute the area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear . "BUCCAL" means relating to the cheek. In humans, the region is innervated by the buccal nerve . The area between the inside of the cheek and the teeth and gums is called the vestibule or BUCCAL POUCH or BUCCAL CAVITY and forms part of the mouth . In other animals the cheeks may also be referred to as JOWLS . CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Other animals * 2 Buttocks
Buttocks
* 3 Society and culture * 4 See also * 5 References STRUCTURECheeks are fleshy in humans, the skin being suspended by the chin and the jaws , and forming the lateral wall of the human mouth, visibly touching the cheekbone below the eye. The inside of the cheek is lined with a mucous membrane (buccal mucosa, part of the oral mucosa )
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Parasitism
In biology /ecology , PARASITISM is a non-mutual relationship between species , where one species, the PARASITE, benefits at the expense of the other, the host . Traditionally parasite (in biological usage) referred primarily to organisms visible to the naked eye, or macroparasites (such as helminths ). Parasites can be microparasites , which are typically smaller, such as protozoa , viruses , and bacteria . Examples of parasites include the plants mistletoe and cuscuta , and animals such as hookworms . Unlike predators , parasites typically do not kill their host, are generally much smaller than their host, and will often live in or on their host for an extended period. Both are special cases of consumer-resource interactions
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Waffle
A WAFFLE is a dish made from leavened batter or dough that is cooked between two plates that are patterned to give a characteristic size, shape and surface impression. There are many variations based on the type of waffle iron and recipe used. Waffles are eaten throughout the world, particularly in Belgium
Belgium
, which has over a dozen regional varieties. Waffles may be made fresh or simply heated after having been commercially precooked and frozen. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 2.1 Medieval origins * 2.2 14th–16th centuries * 2.3 17th–18th centuries * 2.4 19th–21st centuries * 3 Varieties * 4 Toppings * 5 Shelf stability and staling * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word "waffle" first appears in the English language in 1725: "Waffles. Take flower, cream..." It is directly derived from the Dutch wafel, which itself derives from the Middle Dutch wafele
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Sciuridae
and see text SQUIRRELS are members of the family SCIURIDAE, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents . The squirrel family includes tree squirrels , ground squirrels , chipmunks , marmots (including woodchucks ), flying squirrels , and prairie dogs amongst other rodents. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa, and were introduced by humans to Australia. The earliest known squirrels date from the Eocene
Eocene
period and are most closely related to the mountain beaver and to the dormouse among other living rodent families. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Characteristics * 3 Behavior * 3.1 Feeding * 4 Taxonomy * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThat word "squirrel", first attested in 1327, comes from the Anglo-Norman esquirel which is from the Old French
Old French
escurel, the reflex of a Latin word sciurus
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Endemism
ENDEMISM is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution . An alternative term for a species that is endemic is PRECINCTIVE, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area. The word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people". The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was perhaps first used by Frank and McCoy
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Ground Squirrel
Ammospermophilus Spermophilus Cynomys Marmota Tamias Urocitellus Sciurotamias and see text The GROUND SQUIRRELS are members of the squirrel family of rodents ( Sciuridae ) which generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees. The term is most often used for the medium-sized ground squirrels, as the larger ones are more commonly known as marmots (genus Marmota) or prairie dogs , while the smaller and less bushy-tailed ground squirrels tend to be known as chipmunks . Together, they make up the "marmot tribe " of squirrels, MARMOTINI, and the large and mainly ground squirrel subfamily Xerinae , and containing six living genera. Well-known members of this largely Holarctic
Holarctic
group are the marmots (Marmota), including the American groundhog , the chipmunks , the susliks (Spermophilus), and the prairie dogs (Cynomys)
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Burrow
A BURROW is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion . Burrows provide a form of shelter against predation and exposure to the elements and can be found in nearly every biome and among various biological interactions . Burrows can be constructed into a wide variety of substrates, and can range in complexity from a simple tube a few centimetres long to a complex network of interconnecting tunnels and chambers hundreds or thousands of metres in total length, such as a well-developed rabbit warren
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Hoarding (animal Behavior)
HOARDING or CACHING in animal behavior is the storage of food in locations hidden from the sight of both conspecifics (animals of the same or closely related species) and members of other species. Most commonly, the function of hoarding or caching is to store food in times of surplus for times when food is less plentiful. However, there is evidence that some amount of caching or hoarding is done in order to ripen the food, called ripening caching. The term hoarding is most typically used for rodents , whereas caching is more commonly used in reference to birds , but the behaviors in both animal groups are quite similar. Hoarding is done either on a long-term basis – cached on a seasonal cycle, with food to be consumed months down the line – or on a short term basis, in which case the food will be consumed over a period of one or several days
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Goldman's Pocket Gopher
See text SYNONYMS Pappogeomys goldmani GOLDMAN\'S POCKET GOPHER, ( Cratogeomys goldmani) is a species of rodent in the pocket gopher family. It is distributed throughout northern Mexico
Mexico
. SUBSPECIESThere are currently seven identified subspecies of Cratogeomys goldmani: * C. g. elibatus * C. g. goldmani * C. g. maculats * C. g. peridoneus * C. g. planifrons * C. g. rubellus * C. g. subnubilusREFERENCES * ^ A B Álvarez-Castañeda, S. T.; Castro-Arellano, I.; Lacher, T. & Vázquez, E. (2008). " Cratogeomys goldmani". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 12 March 2011. * ^ http://www.organismnames.com/details.htm?lsid=1959552 * ^ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=34860&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1 Reeder, D.M
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Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The SIERRA NEVADA (/siˌɛrə nɪˈvædə, -ˈvɑːdə/ , Spanish: , snowy saw range ) is a mountain range in the Western United States
Western United States
, between the Central Valley of California
California
and the Basin and Range Province . The vast majority of the range lies in the state of California
California
, although the Carson Range
Carson Range
spur lies primarily in Nevada
Nevada
. The Sierra Nevada
Nevada
is part of the American Cordillera , a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an almost continuous sequence of such ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America
North America
, Central America , South America
South America
and Antarctica
Antarctica
. The Sierra runs 400 miles (640 km) north-to-south, and is approximately 70 miles (110 km) across east-to-west
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Desert Pocket Gopher
The DESERT POCKET GOPHER ( Geomys
Geomys
arenarius) is a species of rodent in the family Geomyidae
Geomyidae
. It is found in the state of Chihuahua in Mexico and in Texas
Texas
and New Mexico
Mexico
in the United States
United States
. REFERENCES * ^ A B Hafner, D.J.; Timm, R. & Lacher, T. (2008). "Geomys arenarius". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature