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Pneumonia
Pneumonia
Pneumonia
is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.[4][13] Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing.[2] Severity is variable.[2] Pneumonia
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Immunosupressed
Immunosuppression
Immunosuppression
is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions.[1][2] In general, deliberately induced immunosuppression is performed to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant,[3] Additionally this is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant, or for the treatment of auto-immune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, or Crohn's disease. This is typically done using medications, but may involve surgery (splenectomy), plasmapheresis, or radiation
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Pharmaceutical Drug
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply as drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.[1][2][3] Drug
Drug
therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control, which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician, physician assistant, or qualified nurse) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves)
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Fever
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response,[6] is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.[4][5] There is not a single agreed-upon upper limit for normal temperature with sources using values between 37.5 and 38.3 °C (99.5 and 100.9 °F).[6][7] The increase in set-point triggers increased muscle contractions and causes a feeling of cold.[1] This results in greater heat production and efforts to conserve heat.[2] When the set-point temperature returns to normal, a person feels hot, becomes flushed, and may begin to sweat.[2] Rarely a fever may trigger a febrile seizure.[3] This is more common in young children.[3] Fevers do not typically go higher than 41 to 42 °C (105.8 to 107.6 °F).[5] A fever can be caused by many medical conditions ranging from non serious to life threatening.[11] This includes viral, bacterial and parasitic infections such as the common cold, urinary tract infections
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Microbial Culture
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions. Microbial cultures are foundational and basic diagnostic methods used extensively as a research tool in molecular biology. Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested, or both. It is one of the primary diagnostic methods of microbiology and used as a tool to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply in a predetermined medium
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Physical Examination
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. It generally follows the taking of the medical history—an account of the symptoms as experienced by the patient. Together with the medical history, the physical examination aids in determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan. This data then becomes part of the medical record. A Cochrane Collaboration
Cochrane Collaboration
meta-study found that routine annual physicals did not measurably reduce the risk of illness or death, and conversely, could lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment
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Virus
I: ds DNA
DNA
viruses II: ss DNA
DNA
viruses III: ds RNA
RNA
viruses IV: (+)ss RNA
RNA
viruses V: (−)ss RNA
RNA
viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT virusesA virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms
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Chronic (medicine)
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time. The term chronic is often applied when the course of the disease lasts for more than three months. Common chronic diseases include arthritis, asthma, cancer, COPD, diabetes and some viral diseases such as hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS. An illness which is lifelong because it ends in death is a terminal illness. In medicine, a chronic condition can be distinguished from one that is acute (recent in onset); additionally, a recurrent condition can relapse repeatedly, with periods of remission in between. The non-communicable diseases are also usually lasting medical conditions but are distinguished by their non-infectious causes
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Diagnostic Method
Medical diagnosis
Medical diagnosis
(abbreviated Dx[1] or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. It is most often referred to as diagnosis with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more diagnostic procedures, such as diagnostic tests, are also done during the process. Sometimes posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific. For example, redness of the skin (erythema), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus does not tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis, in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed
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Smoking
Smoking
Smoking
is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Most commonly the substance is the dried leaves of the tobacco plant which have been rolled into a small square of rice paper to create a small, round cylinder called a "cigarette". Smoking
Smoking
is primarily practiced as a route of administration for recreational drug use because the combustion of the dried plant leaves vaporizes and delivers active substances into the lungs where they are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and reach bodily tissue
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Microorganism
A microorganism, or microbe,[a] is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures
Jain scriptures
from 6th-century-BC India and the 1st-century-BC book On Agriculture
Agriculture
by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse
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Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus
(DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not produci
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Autoimmune Disease
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.[1] There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases.[1] Nearly any body part can be involved.[3] Common symptoms include low grade fever and feeling tired.[1] Often symptoms come and go.[1] The cause is generally unknown.[3] Some autoimmune diseases such as lupus run in families, and certain cases may be triggered by infections or other environmental factors.[1] Some common diseases that are generally considered autoimmune include celiac disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, Graves' disease, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.[1][4] The diagnosis can be difficult to determine.[1] Treatment depends on the type and severity of the condition.[1]
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Risk Factor
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection. When evidence is found the term determinant is used as a variable associated with either increased or decreased risk.Contents1 Correlation
Correlation
vs causation 2 Terms of description 3 Example 4 General determinants 5 Risk
Risk
marker 6 History 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading Correlation
Correlation
vs causation[edit] Risk
Risk
factors or determinants are correlational and not necessarily causal, because correlation does not prove causation. For example, being young cannot be said to cause measles, but young people have a higher rate of measles because they are less likely to have developed immunity during a previous epidemic
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Leading Cause Of Death
The following is a list of the causes of human deaths worldwide for the year 2002, arranged by their associated mortality rates. There were 57,029,933 deaths tabulated for that year. Some causes listed include deaths also included in more specific subordinate causes (as indicated by the "Group" column), and some causes are omitted, so the percentages do not sum to 100. According to the World Health Organization, about 58 million people died in 2005, using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD).[1] According to the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, 52.77 million people died in 2010.[2]Contents1 By frequency 2 Malnutrition 3 Developed vs. developing economies3.1 By age group 3.2 By occupation4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBy frequency[edit] The table below uses data from 2002 and is out of date
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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