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Plywood
Plywood
Plywood
is a sheet material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another. It is an engineered wood from the family of manufactured boards which includes medium-density fibreboard (MDF) and particle board (chipboard). All plywoods bind resin and wood fibre sheets (cellulose cells are long, strong and thin) to form a composite material. This alternation of the grain is called cross-graining and has several important benefits: it reduces the tendency of wood to split when nailed in at the edges; it reduces expansion and shrinkage, providing improved dimensional stability; and it makes the strength of the panel consistent across all directions. There is usually an odd number of plies, so that the sheet is balanced—this reduces warping
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Softwood
Softwood
Softwood
is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers. The term is opposed to hardwood, which is the wood from angiosperm trees. Softwood trees have needles and exposed seeds, but do not have leaves.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Known softwood trees and uses 3 Applications 4 See also 5 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] Softwoods are not necessarily softer than hardwoods.[1] In both groups there is an enormous variation in actual wood hardness, with the range in density in hardwoods completely including that of softwoods; some hardwoods (e.g. balsa) are softer than most softwoods, while the hardest hardwoods are much harder than any softwood
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Monocoque
Monocoque
Monocoque
(/ˈmɒnəˌkɒk, -ˌkoʊk/), also structural skin, is a structural system where loads are supported through an object's external skin, similar to an egg shell. The word monocoque is a French term for "single shell" or (of boats) "single hull".[1] A true monocoque carries both tensile and compressive forces within the skin and can be recognised by the absence of a load carrying internal frame. By contrast, a semi-monocoque is a hybrid combining a tensile stressed skin and a compressive structure made up of longerons and ribs or frames.[2] Other semi-monocoques, not to be confused with true monocoques, include vehicle unibodies, which tend to be composites, and inflatable shells or balloon tanks, both of which are pressure stabilised
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Spruce
About 35; see text.A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea
Picea
/paɪˈsiːə/,[1] a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth. Spruces are large trees, from about 20–60 m (about 60–200 ft) tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form. The needles, or leaves, of spruces are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each needle on a small, peg-like structure. The needles are shed when 4–10 years old, leaving the branches rough with the retained pegs (an easy means of distinguishing them from other similar genera, where the branches are fairly smooth). Spruces are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (moth and butterfly) species, such as the eastern spruce budworm
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Joist
A joist is a horizontal structural member used in framing to span an open space, often between beams that subsequently transfer loads to vertical members. When incorporated into a floor framing system, joists serve to provide stiffness to the subfloor sheathing, allowing it to function as a horizontal diaphragm. Joists are often doubled or tripled, placed side by side, where conditions warrant, such as where wall partitions require support. Joists are either made of wood, engineered wood, or steel, each of which have unique characteristics. Typically, wood joists have the cross section of a plank with the longer faces positioned vertically. However, engineered wood joists may have a cross section resembling the Roman capital letter "I"; these joists are referred to as I-joists. Steel joists can take on various shapes, resembling the Roman capital letters "C", "I", "L" and "S". Wood joists were also used in old-style timber framing
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Hardwood
Hardwood
Hardwood
is wood from dicot trees. These are usually found in broad-leaved temperate and tropical forests. In temperate and boreal latitudes they are mostly deciduous, but in tropics and subtropics mostly evergreen. Hardwood
Hardwood
contrasts with softwood (which is from gymnosperm trees).Contents1 Characteristics 2 Applications2.1 Cooking3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit]SEM images showing the presence of pores in hardwoods (oak, top) and absence in softwoods (pine, bottom)Hardwoods are produced by angiosperm trees that reproduce by flowers, and have broad leaves. Many species are deciduous
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Angiosperm
sweet bayScientific classificationKingdom: PlantaeSubkingdom: Embryophyta(unranked): Spermatophyta(unranked): AngiospermsGroups (APG IV)[1]Basal angiospermsAmborellales Nymphaeales AustrobaileyalesCore angiospermsmagnoliids Chloranthales monocots Ceratophyllales eudicotsSynonyms Anthophyta Cronquist[2] Angiospermae Lindl. Magnoliophyta Cronquist, Takht.
Takht.
& W.Zimm.[3] Magnolicae Takht.[4]The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae[5][6] or Magnoliophyta,[7] are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.[8] Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds
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Tropical
The tropics are a region of the Earth
Earth
surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.9″ (or 23.43692°) N and the Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
at 23°26′12.9″ (or 23.43692°) S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The tropics are also referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone (see geographical zone)
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World War II
Pacific WarChina Pacific Ocean South-East Asia South West Pacific Japan Manchuria & Northern Korea Mediterranean and Middle EastNorth Africa East Africa Mediterranean Sea Adriatic Malta Yugoslavia Iraq Syria–Lebanon Iran Italy Dodecanese Southern France Other campaignsAtlantic Arctic Strategic bombing Americas French West Africa Indian Ocean Madagascar Contemporaneous warsSoviet–Japanese border conflicts Franco-Thai War Ecuadorian–Peruvian War Ili Rebellion Afghan tribal revolts World War II Alphabetical indices A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0–9Navigation CampaignsCountriesEquipment TimelineOutlineLists PortalCategoryBibliography vte World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis
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Fighter Aircraft
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft,[1] as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets. The hallmarks of a fighter are its speed, maneuverability, and small size relative to other combat aircraft. Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities, and some are designed as dual-purpose fighter-bombers; often aircraft that do not fulfill the standard definition are called fighters. This may be for political or national security reasons, for advertising purposes, or other reasons.[2] A fighter's main purpose is to establish air superiority over a battlefield
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Ash (tree)
Fraxinus
Fraxinus
/ˈfræksɪnəs/,[4] English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae. It contains 45–65 species of usually medium to large trees, mostly deciduous though a few subtropical species are evergreen. The genus is widespread across much of Europe, Asia and North America.[3][5][6][7][8] The tree's common English name, "ash", traces back to the Old English æsc, while the generic name originated in Latin. Both words also mean "spear" in their respective languages.[9] The leaves are opposite (rarely in whorls of three), and mostly pinnately compound, simple in a few species. The seeds, popularly known as "keys" or "helicopter seeds", are a type of fruit known as a samara. Most Fraxinus
Fraxinus
species are dioecious, having male and female flowers on separate plants[10] but gender in ash is expressed as a continuum between male and female individuals, dominated by unisexual trees
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Douglas Fir
Pseudotsuga
Pseudotsuga
menziesii, commonly known as Douglas fir, Douglas-fir and Oregon
Oregon
pine, is an evergreen conifer species native to western North America. One variety, the coast Douglas fir, grows along the Pacific Ocean from central British Columbia
British Columbia
south to central California. A second variety, the Rocky Mountain Douglas fir, grows in the Rocky Mountains from British Columbia
British Columbia
south to Mexico. The tree is dominant in western Washington and Oregon. It is extensively used for timber, worldwide.Contents1 Naming 2 Description 3 Distribution 4 Ecology 5 Uses 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksNaming[edit] The common name honors David Douglas, a Scottish botanist and collector who first reported the extraordinary nature and potential of the species
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Oak
See List of Quercus speciesAn oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (/ˈkwɜːrkəs/;[1] Latin
Latin
"oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are approximately 600 extant species of oaks. The common name "oak" also appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus (stone oaks), as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta
Grevillea robusta
(silky oaks) and the Casuarinaceae
Casuarinaceae
(she-oaks). The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, and includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia, Europe, and North Africa. North America
North America
contains the largest number of oak species, with approximately 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico
Mexico
has 160 species of which 109 are endemic
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Erythrobalanus
The genus Quercus (oak) contains about 600 species,[1] some of which are listed here. For the taxonomic status of the oaks see The Plant List.[2]Contents1 Subgenus Quercus1.1 Section Quercus 1.2 Section Mesobalanus 1.3 Section Cerris 1.4 Section Protobalanus 1.5 Section Lobatae2 Subgenus Cyclobalanopsis 3 Notes 4 External links 5 Sources 6 ReferencesSubgenus Quercus[edit] Section Quercus[edit] "White oak" redirects here. For other uses, see White oak (other). The white oaks (synonym sect. Lepidobalanus or Leucobalanus). Europe, Asia, north Africa, North America
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Maple
See either species grouped by sections alphabetical list of speciesDistributionAcer /ˈeɪsər/ is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple
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Shorea
See List of Shorea species
List of Shorea species
for complete taxonomy to species level. Shorea
Shorea
is a genus of about 196 species of mainly rainforest trees in the family Dipterocarpaceae. The genus is named after Sir John Shore, the Governor-General of the British East India
India
Company, 1793–1798. They are native to southeast Asia, from Northern India
India
to Malaysia, Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Philippines. In west Malesia
Malesia
and the Philippines this genus dominates the skyline of the tropical forests. The tallest documented tropical angiosperm is an 88.3-metre-tall Shorea
Shorea
faguetiana in the Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah
Sabah
on the island of Borneo, and in that park at least five other species of the genus have been measured to be over 80 m tall: S. argentifolia, S
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