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Plurality Voting System
Plurality voting
Plurality voting
is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected. In a system based on single-member districts, it may be called first-past-the-post (FPTP), single-choice voting, simple plurality or relative/simple majority. In a system based on multi-member districts, it may be referred to as winner-takes-all or bloc voting
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Wright System
The Wright system
Wright system
is a refinement of rules associated with proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote (PR-STV) electoral system. Developed and written by Anthony van der Craats, System Analyst and Life member of the Proportional Representation Society of Australia, It was first published as part of a submission and review of Victoria and Australia's electoral system. It is named after Jack Wright, former President of the Proportional Representation Society of Australia) [1] The aim of the system is to provide an alternative to various methods of segmentation and distribution of preferences associated with the exclusion of a candidate from the count. The Wright System fulfills the first of the two principles identified by Brian Meek:[2]Principle 1. If a candidate is excluded from the count, all ballots are treated as if that candidate had never stood. Principle 2
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Oklahoma Primary Electoral System
The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
primary electoral system was a voting system used to elect one winner from a pool of candidates using preferential voting. Voters rank candidates in order of preference, and their votes are initially allocated to their first-choice candidate. If, after this initial count, no candidate has a majority of votes cast, a mathematical formula comes into play. The system was used for primary elections in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
when it was adopted in 1925[1] until it was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
in 1926.[2]Contents1 System1.1 Worked example2 Adoption 3 Reaction 4 Voiding 5 See also 6 ReferencesSystem[edit]The prescribed table format in which the results of a vote held using this system should be presented, according to a now-repealed Oklahoma state law.If there were only two candidates, then a simple first past the post election was held
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Gregory Method
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system based on proportional representation and ranked voting. Under STV, an elector's vote is initially allocated to his or her most-preferred candidate. After candidates have been either elected (winners) by reaching quota or eliminated (losers), surplus votes are transferred from winners to remaining candidates (hopefuls) according to the surplus ballots' ordered preferences. The system minimizes "wasted" votes and allows for approximately proportional representation without the use of party lists
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Huntington–Hill Method
The Huntington–Hill method of apportionment assigns seats by finding a modified divisor D such that each constituency's priority quotient (population divided by D ), using the geometric mean of the lower and upper quota for the divisor, yields the correct number of seats that minimizes the percentage differences in the size of subconstituencies.[1] When envisioned as a proportional electoral system, this is effectively a highest averages method of party-list proportional representation in which the divisors are given by D = n ( n + 1 ) displaystyle scriptstyle D= sqrt n(n+1) , n being the number of seats a state or party is currently allocated
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Localized List
A localized list or local list is a technique used under systems of party-list proportional representation to determine which party candidates are elected from the party list. Local lists differ from open lists or closed lists. As with open lists, local lists allow the electorate to vote for individual candidates, but that preference is expressed through local or district level election processes. Closed lists do not allow voters to express such a preference. Voters vote only for the party. Voting in local list systems takes place at the district level, where each party is represented by a single candidate. In this, the system resembles first-past-the-post or other single-winner systems. However, the candidate with the largest number of votes in a district is not necessarily the one that is elected
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Proportional Representation
Proportional representation
Proportional representation
(PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.[1] If n% of the electorate support a particular political party, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party.[2] The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result: not just a plurality, or a bare majority, of them
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Preferential Block Voting
Preferential block voting
Preferential block voting
is a majoritarian voting system for electing several representatives from a single multimember constituency. Unlike the single transferable vote, preferential block voting is not a method for obtaining proportional representation, and instead produces similar results to plurality block voting, of which it can be seen as the instant-runoff version. Under both systems, a single group of like-minded voters can win every seat, making both forms of block voting nonproportional.Contents1 Casting and counting the ballots 2 Effects of preferential block voting 3 Usage of preferential block voting 4 Ballots 5 ReferencesCasting and counting the ballots[edit] In preferential block voting, a ranked ballot is used, ranking candidates from most to least preferred
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Cardinal Voting
Cardinal voting
Cardinal voting
refers to any electoral system which allows the voter to give each candidate an independent rating or grade. These are also referred to as "rated", "evaluative", "graded", or "absolute" voting systems.[1][2] Cardinal methods, along with ordinal methods (also called ranked voting), are the two main branches of modern voting systems, to compete with the venerable simple plurality voting.On a rated ballot, the voter may rate each choice independently.An approval voting ballot does not require ranking or exclusivity.Variants[edit]A majority judgment ballot is based on grades like those used in schools.There are several voting systems that allow independent ratings of each candidate
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General Ticket
General ticket representation is a particular method of electing members of a multi-member state delegation to the United States House of Representatives. States using this method elected their entire delegation in a statewide manner, either on a single ballot (by means of bloc voting) or on separate ballots for each seat, but always allowing every voter in the state to vote for a candidate for each seat
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Limited Voting
Limited
Limited
may refer to: Limited
Limited
company, a company in which the liability of its members is limited to what they have invested in the company
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Exhaustive Ballot
The exhaustive ballot is a voting system used to elect a single winner. Under the exhaustive ballot the elector simply casts a single vote for his or her favorite candidate. However, if no candidate is supported by an overall majority of votes then the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated and a further round of voting occurs. This process is repeated for as many rounds as necessary until one candidate has a majority. The exhaustive ballot is similar to the two-round system but with key differences. Under the two round system if no candidate wins a majority on the first round, only the top two recipients of votes advance to the second (and final) round of voting, and a majority winner is determined in the second round. By contrast, on the exhaustive ballot only one candidate is eliminated per round; thus, several rounds of voting may be required until a candidate reaches a majority
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D'Hondt Method
The D'Hondt method[a] or the Jefferson method is a highest averages method for allocating seats, and is thus a type of party-list proportional representation. The method described is named in United States after Thomas Jefferson, who introduced the method for proportional allocation of seats in the United States
United States
House of Representatives in 1791, and in Europe after Belgian mathematician Victor D'Hondt, who described it in 1878 for proportional allocation of parliamentary seats to the parties. There are two forms: closed list (a party selects the order of election of their candidates) and an open list (voters' choices determine the order). Proportional representation
Proportional representation
systems aim to allocate seats to parties approximately in proportion to the number of votes received. For example, if a party wins one-third of the votes then it should gain about one-third of the seats
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Majority Judgment
Majority judgment
Majority judgment
is a single-winner voting system proposed by Michel Balinski and Rida Laraki. Voters freely grade each candidate in one of several named ranks, for instance from "excellent" to "bad", and the candidate with the highest median grade is the winner. If more than one candidate has the same median grade, a tiebreaker is used which sees the "closest to median" grade
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Party-list Proportional Representation
Party-list proportional representation
Party-list proportional representation
systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list. They can also be used as part of mixed additional member systems.[1] In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, and seats get distributed to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives
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Open List
Open list
Open list
describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the order in which a party's candidates are elected. This as opposed to closed list, which allows only active members, party officials, or consultants to determine the order of its candidates and gives the general voter no influence at all on the position of the candidates placed on the party list. Additionally, an open list system allows voters to select individuals rather than parties. Different systems give voter different amounts of influence
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