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Plato
PLATO (/ˈpleɪtoʊ/ ; Greek : Πλάτων _Plátōn_, pronounced in Classical Attic ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens , the first institution of higher learning in the Western world . He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, especially the Western tradition . Unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries , Plato's entire work is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years. Others believe that the oldest extant manuscript dates to around AD 895, 1100 years after Plato's death. This makes it difficult to know exactly what Plato wrote. Along with his teacher, Socrates , and his most famous student, Aristotle , Plato laid the very foundations of Western philosophy and science . Alfred North Whitehead once noted: "the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato." In addition to being a foundational figure for Western science, philosophy, and mathematics, Plato has also often been cited as one of the founders of Western religion and spirituality
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Plato (other)
PLATO (428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BCE) was a Greek philosopher. PLATO may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 People * 2 Places * 3 Science and technology * 4 Other uses * 5 See also PEOPLE * Plato
Plato
(comic poet) (fl. 420–391 BCE) * Plato
Plato
of Bactria (2nd century BCE), Greco-Bactrian king * Plato
Plato
(exarch) (fl
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Platon (other)
PLATON may refer to: PEOPLE * Plato
Plato
(_Plátōn_), the Greek philosopher; * Plato
Plato
(2nd century BCE), Greco-Bactrian king; * Plato
Plato
(fl. 645–653), Byzantine exarch of Ravenna; * Plato
Plato
of Sakkoudion (735–814), Byzantine saint; * Platon Levshin (1737–1812), Metropolitan of Moscow; * Nikolaos Platon , Greek archaeologist; * Platon (bishop) , born Paul Kulbusch, Estonian Orthodox Church bishop of Tallinn and all Estonia – murdered 1919
1919
; * Platon Chirnoaga (1894–1974) was a Romanian Brigadier-General during World War II
World War II
; * Platon (photographer) (born 1968), Greek-English photographer.PLACES * _ Platoń _, a village in Poland This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title PLATON. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Platon
Platon
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Silanion
SILANION (Greek : Σιλανίων, _gen._ Σιλανίωνος) was the best-known of the Greek portrait-sculptors working during the fourth century BC. His _floruit_ is given by Pliny (_Naturalis Historia _, 34.51) as the 113th Olympiad
Olympiad
, that is, around 328–325 BC; the tradition recorded by Pliny was that Silanion
Silanion
had no famous teacher. Of two of his known works, however, his idealized portrait head of Plato
Plato
was commissioned by Mithridates of Persia for the Academy of Athens
Athens
, _c._ 370 BC, Of it and of an idealized portrait head of Sappho
Sappho
, later copies survive, if the number of surviving copies can be correlated to the fame of the commissions. Both are of simple ideal type, the Sappho
Sappho
not strictly a portrait, since Sappho (sixth century BC) lived before the age of portraiture. The best copy of the Plato
Plato
is in the Glyptothek
Glyptothek
of Munich
Munich
(_illustration_). Silanion
Silanion
also produced a "portrait" of the poet Corinna . Other "portrait" heads by Silanion
Silanion
evoked mythic and legendary heroes
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Classical Athens
The city of ATHENS ( Ancient Greek : Ἀθῆναι, _Athênai_, modern pronunciation _Athínai_) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state ) of the same name, located in Attica , Greece , leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League . Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras . This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War ). The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles . In the classical period , Athens was a center for the arts, learning and philosophy , home of Plato 's Akademia and Aristotle 's Lyceum , Athens was also the birthplace of Socrates , Pericles , Sophocles , and many other prominent philosophers, writers and politicians of the ancient world
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Apology (Plato)
The _APOLOGY OF SOCRATES_ (Greek : Ἀπολογία Σωκράτους, _Apologia Sokratous_, Latin : _Apologia Socratis_), by Plato
Plato
, is the Socratic dialogue that presents the speech of legal self-defence, which Socrates
Socrates
presented at his trial for impiety and corruption , in 399 BC. Specifically, the _Apology of Socrates_ is a defence against the charges of “corrupting the young” and “not believing in the gods in whom the city believes, but in other _daimonia _ that are novel” to Athens (24b). Among the primary sources about the trial and death of the philosopher Socrates
Socrates
(469–399 BC), the _Apology of Socrates_ is the dialogue that depicts the trial, and is one of four Socratic dialogues, along with _ Euthyphro _, _ Phaedo
Phaedo
_, and _ Crito
Crito
_, through which Plato
Plato
details the final days of the philosopher Socrates
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Phaedo
_PHæDO_ or _PHAEDO_ (/ˈfiːdoʊ/ ; Greek : Φαίδων, _Phaidōn_, Greek pronunciation: ), also known to ancient readers as _On The Soul_, is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato
Plato
's middle period, along with the _Republic _ and the _Symposium _. The _Phaedo_, which depicts the death of Socrates
Socrates
, is also Plato's fourth and last dialogue to detail the philosopher's final days, following _Euthyphro _, _Apology _, and _ Crito
Crito
_. In the dialogue, Socrates
Socrates
discusses the nature of the afterlife on his last day before being executed by drinking hemlock . Socrates
Socrates
has been imprisoned and sentenced to death by an Athenian jury for not believing in the gods of the state (though some scholars think it was more for his support of "philosopher kings" as opposed to democracy) and for corrupting the youth of the city. The dialogue is told from the perspective of one of Socrates' students, Phaedo of Elis . Having been present at Socrates' death bed, Phaedo
Phaedo
relates the dialogue from that day to Echecrates , a Pythagorean philosopher
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Symposium (Plato)
The _SYMPOSIUM_ ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Συμπόσιον) is a philosophical text by Plato
Plato
dated c. 385–370 BC. It depicts a friendly contest of extemporaneous speeches given by a group of notable men attending a banquet. The men include the philosopher Socrates
Socrates
, the general and political figure Alcibiades , and the comic playwright Aristophanes
Aristophanes
. The speeches are to be given in praise of Eros
Eros
, who is the god of love and desire, and the son of Aphrodite. In the _Symposium_ Eros
Eros
is recognized as erotic love, and as a phenomenon that is capable of inspiring courage, valor, great deeds and works, and vanquishing man’s natural fear of death. It is seen as transcending its earthy origins, and attaining spiritual heights. This extraordinary elevation of the concept of love raises a question of whether some of the extremest extents of meaning might be intended as humor or farce. _Eros_ is almost always translated as “love”, and the English word has its own varieties and ambiguities that provide additional challenges to the effort to understand the _Eros_ of ancient Athens
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Republic (Plato)
The _REPUBLIC_ (Greek : Πολιτεία, _ Politeia _; Latin
Latin
: _Res Publica_ ) is a Socratic dialogue , written by Plato
Plato
around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state and the just man. It is Plato's best-known work, and has proven to be one of the world's most influential works of philosophy and political theory , both intellectually and historically. In the book's dialogue, Socrates
Socrates
discusses the meaning of justice and whether or not the just man is happier than the unjust man with various Athenians and foreigners. They consider the natures of existing regimes and then propose a series of different, hypothetical cities in comparison. This culminates in the discussion of Kallipolis (Καλλίπολις), a hypothetical city-state ruled by a philosopher king . They also discuss the theory of forms , the immortality of the soul , and the role of the philosopher and that of poetry in society . The dialogues may have taken place during the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War

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Ancient Philosophy
This page lists some links to ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY. In Western philosophy , the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire marked the ending of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of Medieval philosophy , whereas in Eastern philosophy , the spread of Islam through the Arab Empire marked the end of Old Iranian philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of early Islamic philosophy
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Platonism
PLATONISM, rendered as a proper noun , is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it. In narrower usage, PLATONISM, rendered as a common noun (with a lower case "p" subject to sentence case ), refers to the philosophy that affirms the existence of abstract objects , which are asserted to "exist" in a "third realm" distinct both from the sensible external world and from the internal world of consciousness, and is the opposite of nominalism . Lower case "platonists" need not accept any of the doctrines of Plato. In a narrower sense, the term might indicate the doctrine of Platonic realism . The central concept of Platonism, a distinction essential to the Theory of Forms , is the distinction between the reality which is perceptible but unintelligible, and the reality which is imperceptible but intelligible. The forms are typically described in dialogues such as the _ Phaedo _, _Symposium _ and _Republic _ as transcendent perfect archetypes of which objects in the everyday world are imperfect copies. In the _Republic_ the highest form is identified as the Form of the Good , the source of all other forms, which could be known by reason. In the _Sophist _, a later work, the forms _being_, _sameness_ and _difference_ are listed among the primordial "Great Kinds"
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Rhetoric
RHETORIC is the art of discourse , wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. As a subject of formal study and a productive civic practice, rhetoric has played a central role in the European tradition. Its best known definition comes from Aristotle
Aristotle
, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion ." Rhetoric
Rhetoric
typically provides heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals, logos , pathos , and ethos . The five canons of rhetoric, which trace the traditional tasks in designing a persuasive speech, were first codified in classical Rome: invention , arrangement , style , memory , and delivery . Along with grammar and logic (or dialectic —see Martianus Capella ), rhetoric is one of the three ancient arts of discourse . From Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
to the late 19th century, it was a central part of Western education, filling the need to train public speakers and writers to move audiences to action with arguments
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Art
ART is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks ), expressing the author's imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art. The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts , which include creation of images or objects in fields including today painting, sculpture, printmaking , photography, and other visual media. Architecture is often included as one of the visual arts; however, like the decorative arts , or advertising, it involves the creation of objects where the practical considerations of use are essential—in a way that they usually are not in a painting, for example. Music, theatre, film, dance, and other performing arts , as well as literature and other media such as interactive media , are included in a broader definition of art or the arts . Until the 17th century, _art_ referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences . In modern usa