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Plaquette
A plaquette (French pronunciation: ​[plakɛt], small plaque) is a small low relief sculpture in bronze or other materials. These were popular in the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
and later. They may be commemorative, but especially in the Renaissance and Mannerist
Mannerist
periods were often made for purely decorative purposes, with often crowded scenes from religious, historical or mythological sources. Only one side is decorated, giving the main point of distinction with the artistic medal, where both sides are normally decorated.[2] Most are rectangular or circular, but other shapes are found, as in the example illustrated. Typical sizes range from about two inches up to about seven across a side, or as the diameter, with the smaller end or middle of that range more common
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Notname
In art history, a Notname
Notname
(German: [ˈnoːtˌnaːmə] ( listen), "necessity-name") is an invented name given to an artist whose identity has been lost. The practice arose from the need to give such artists and their typically untitled, or generically titled works, an acceptable if unsatisfactory grouping, avoiding confusion when cataloging
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Brass
Brass
Brass
is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc. The proportions of zinc and copper can vary to create different types of brass alloys with varying mechanical and electrical properties.[1] It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure. In contrast, bronze is an alloy of copper and tin.[2] Both bronze and brass may include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic, lead, phosphorus, aluminium, manganese, and silicon
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Engraved Gems
An engraved gem, frequently referred to as an intaglio, is a small and usually semi-precious gemstone that has been carved, in the Western tradition normally with images or inscriptions only on one face.[1] The engraving of gemstones was a major luxury art form in the Ancient world, and an important one in some later periods.[2] Strictly speaking, engraving means carving in intaglio (with the design cut into the flat background of the stone), but relief carvings (with the design projecting out of the background as in nearly all cameos) are also covered by the term. This article uses "cameo" in its strict sense, to denote a carving exploiting layers of differently coloured stone. The activity is also called gem carving and the artists gem-cutters. References to antique gems and intaglios in a jewellery context will almost always mean carved gems; when referring to monumental sculpture, counter-relief, meaning the same as "intaglio", is more likely to be used
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Padua
Padua
Padua
(/ˈpædjuə/ or US: /ˈpædʒuə/, Italian: Padova [ˈpaːdova] ( listen); Venetian: Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy. It is the capital of the province of Padua
Padua
and the economic and communications hub of the area. Padua's population is 214,000 (as of 2011[update]). The city is sometimes included, with Venice
Venice
(Italian Venezia) and Treviso, in the Padua-Treviso- Venice
Venice
Metropolitan Area, which has a population of c. 1,600,000. Padua
Padua
stands on the Bacchiglione
Bacchiglione
River, 40 kilometres (25 miles) west of Venice
Venice
and 29 km (18 miles) southeast of Vicenza. The Brenta River, which once ran through the city, still touches the northern districts. Its agricultural setting is the Venetian Plain (Pianura Veneta)
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Ecce Homo
Ecce homo
Ecce homo
("behold the man", Ecclesiastical Latin: [ˈɛttʃɛ ˈɔmo], Classical Latin: [ˈɛkkɛ ˈhɔmoː]) are the Latin words used by Pontius Pilate
Pontius Pilate
in the Vulgate
Vulgate
translation of John 19:5, when he presents a scourged Jesus Christ, bound and crowned with thorns, to a hostile crowd shortly before his Crucifixion
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Giovanni Andrea Doria
Giovanni Andrea Doria, also Gianandrea Doria (1539–1606), was an Italian admiral from Genoa. He was the son of Giannettino Doria. He became the Admiral of the Genoese Fleet in 1556 and commanded the combined Christian fleet of the Holy League at the Battle of Djerba
Battle of Djerba
in 1560, which was won by the Ottoman Turks under the command of Piyale Pasha. He also participated in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, commanding the right wing; the battle was won by the Christian forces and signaled the first ever defeat of the Ottoman Turks at sea
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Lost Wax
Lost-wax casting
Lost-wax casting
(also called "investment casting", "precision casting", or cire perdue in French) is the process by which a duplicate metal sculpture (often silver, gold, brass or bronze) is cast from an original sculpture. Dependent on the sculptor's skills, intricate works can be achieved by this method. The oldest known examples of this technique are the objects discovered in the Cave of the Treasure (Nahal Mishmar) hoard in southern Israel, and which belong to the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
period (4500–3500 BC). Conservative estimates of age from carbon-14 dating date the items to c. 3700 BC, making them more than 5700 years old.[contradictory][1][2]. Another example from a similar period is found in a 6000 year old amulet from Pakistan.[3] Though the process today varies from foundry to foundry, the steps used in casting small bronze sculptures are fairly standardized
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Casting
Casting
Casting
is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting
Casting
materials are usually metals or various cold setting materials that cure after mixing two or more components together; examples are epoxy, concrete, plaster and clay. Casting
Casting
is most often used for making complex shapes that would be otherwise difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.[1] Casting
Casting
is a 6000-year-old process
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Gilding
The term gilding covers a number of decorative techniques for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold. A gilded object is also described as "gilt". Where metal is gilded, it was traditionally silver in the West, to make silver-gilt (or vermeil) objects, but gilt-bronze is commonly used in China, and also called ormolu if it is Western. Methods of gilding include hand application and glueing, chemical gilding, and electroplating, the last also called gold plating.[1] Parcel-gilt (partial gilt) objects are only gilded over part of their surfaces
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Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Nuremberg
(/ˈnjʊərəmbɜːrɡ/; German: Nürnberg; pronounced [ˈnʏɐ̯nbɛɐ̯k] ( listen)[2]) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal
Rhine–Main–Danube Canal
in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about 170 kilometres (110 mi) north of Munich. It is the second-largest city in Bavaria
Bavaria
(after Munich), and the largest in Franconia
Franconia
(German: Franken). As of February 2015[update] it had a population of 517,498, making it Germany's fourteenth-largest city. The urban area also includes Fürth, Erlangen
Erlangen
and Schwabach, with a total population of 763,854
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Vischer Family Of Nuremberg
Vischer is the name of a family of sculptors active in Nuremberg between 1453 and 1549. The family contributed largely to the masterpieces of German art in the 15th and 16th centuries. Attribution between them can be confusing since they worked together out of the same workshop. The fame of Peter Vischer the Elder
Peter Vischer the Elder
seems to have caused the tendency of over attribution to him versus his sons and even non-family members.Contents1 Hermann Vischer the Elder 2 Peter Vischer the Elder 3 Hermann Vischer the Younger 4 Peter Vischer the Younger 5 Hans Vischer 6 References 7 External linksHermann Vischer the Elder[edit] Hermann Vischer, the Elder came to Nuremberg
Nuremberg
as a worker in brass in 1453 and there became a "master" of his guild. There is only one work that can be ascribed to him with certainty, the baptismal font in the parish church of Wittenberg
Wittenberg
(1457)
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Matteo De' Pasti
Matteo di Andrea de' Pasti (1420-1467/1468) was an Italian sculptor and medalist. Matteo was born in Verona. He worked on many royal commissions, including work for Lionello d'Este
Lionello d'Este
and Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta. Matteo collaborated with the architect Leone Battista Alberti
Leone Battista Alberti
on the design and construction of the Tempio Malatestiano
Tempio Malatestiano
in Rimini.[1] Some of his works reside at the Cleveland Museum of Art
Cleveland Museum of Art
[2] and the British Museum [3] He died in Rimini. References[edit]^ "Matteo di Andrea de' Pasti Brief Biography". Archived from the original on 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2008-11-10.  ^ "Matteo medals". Retrieved 2008-11-10. [dead link] ^ "Matteo medals"
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Patina
Patina
Patina
(/ˈpætɪnə/ or /pəˈtiːnə/) is a thin layer that variously forms on the surface of copper, bronze and similar metals (tarnish produced by oxidation or other chemical processes), or certain stones, [1] and wooden furniture (sheen produced by age, wear, and polishing), or any similar acquired change of a surface through age and exposure. Additionally, leather aficionados use the term to describe the ageing of high quality leather. The patina on leather goods are unique to the type of leather and frequency of use and exposure. Patinas can provide a protective covering to materials that would otherwise be damaged by corrosion or weathering
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Émile Molinier
Émile Molinier (26 April 1857 – 5 May 1906) was a 19th-century French curator and art historian.Contents1 Career 2 Selected works 3 References 4 External linksCareer[edit] Following his elder brother Auguste, Émile Molinier studied at the École Nationale des Chartes. He wrote a thesis on medieval history entitled Étude sur la vie d'Ernoul, sire d'Audrehem, maréchal de France which earned him the archivist paleographer degree in 1879.[1] He first worked at the Département des Estampes et de la Photographie de la Bibliothèque nationale de France (fr) before joining the Louvre, where he served as curator of the newly created art objects department
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Pope Eugenius IV
Pope
Pope
Eugene IV (Latin: Eugenius IV; 1383 – 23 February 1447), born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope
Pope
from 3 March 1431 to his death in 1447. He is the last pope to take the name "Eugene" upon his election.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Papacy1.2.1 Conciliar reform and papal misfortunes 1.2.2 Resurgence1.3 Eugene on slavery2 Death and legacy 3 Fictional depictions 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Condulmer was born in Venice
Venice
to a rich merchant family. He entered a community of Canons Regular of San Giorgio in Alga in his native city. At the age of twenty-four he was appointed by his maternal uncle, Pope Gregory XII, as Bishop of Siena
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