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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land
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Plant (other)
A PLANT is a living organism that generally does not move and absorbs nutrients from its surroundings. Typically it has been placed deliberately rather than naturally. PLANT may also refer to: IN MANUFACTURING AND ENGINEERING * Chemical plant * Physical plant
Physical plant
, often just called "plant", a facility's infrastructure (i.e., " Plant
Plant
Room") * Any type of mobile construction machinery * Another name for a factory (short for "manufacturing plant") * Processing plant, in process manufacturing IN MEDIA AND ENTERTAINMENT * Plant
Plant
(snooker) , used in British English to refer to a type of combination shot * The Plant
Plant
(newspaper) , student newspaper at Dawson College in Montreal, Quebec, Canada * PLANT , fictional organization in the anime series Gundam SEED and its sequel * The Plants , a 1950s doo-wop group * Record Plant
Plant
recording studios, located at The Plant, in Sausalito, California
Sausalito, California
* The Plant
Plant
(film) , a 1995 television film * The Plant
Plant
IN NAMES * Henry B
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Viridiplantae
VIRIDIPLANTAE (literally "green plants") are a clade of eukaryotic organisms made up of the green algae , which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes ), which emerged within them. Green algae traditionally excludes the land plants, rendering them a paraphyletic group. They have cells with cellulose in their cell walls, and primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria that contain chlorophylls a and b and lack phycobilins . More than 350,000 species of Viridiplantae exist. In some classification systems, the group has been treated as a kingdom , under various names, e.g. Viridiplantae, Chlorobionta, or simply Plantae , the latter expanding the traditional plant kingdom to include the green algae . Adl _et al._, who produced a classification for all eukaryotes in 2005, introduced the name Chloroplastida for this group, reflecting the group having primary chloroplasts with green chlorophyll . They rejected the name Viridiplantae on the grounds that some of the species are not plants, as understood traditionally. The Viridiplantae are made up of two clades: Chlorophyta and Streptophyta . Together with Rhodophyta and glaucophytes , Viridiplantae are thought to belong to a larger clade called Archaeplastida or Primoplantae
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Hadean
The HADEAN ( /ˈheɪdiən/ ) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean . It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS , 4 billion years ago. The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "PRISCOAN PERIOD". Other, older texts simply refer to the eon as the PRE-ARCHEAN. In 2015, traces of carbon minerals interpreted as "remains of biotic life " were found in 4.1-billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia
Western Australia
. Artist's impression of a Hadean
Hadean
landscape
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Archean
The ARCHEAN Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/ , also spelled ARCHAEAN) is a geologic eon , 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and changes in classification * 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean
Archean
* 2.1 Palaeoenvironment * 3 Geology
Geology
* 4 Early life in the Archean
Archean
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY AND CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (_Arkhē_), meaning "beginning, origin". Its earliest use is from 1872, when it meant "of the earliest geological age." In earlier literature the Hadean
Hadean
Eon was included as part of the Archean. Instead of being based on stratigraphy , the beginning and end of the Archean
Archean
Eon are defined chronometrically . The eon's lower boundary or starting point of 4 Gya (4 billion years ago ) is officially recognized by the International Commission on Stratigraphy
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Proterozoic
The PROTEROZOIC ( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/ ) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth . The name Proterozoic comes from Greek and means "earlier life", the Greek root protero-,means "former, earlier" and zoic-, means "animal, living being". The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian Supereon. It is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic , Mesoproterozoic , and Neoproterozoic . The well-identified events of this eon were the transition to an oxygenated atmosphere during the Paleoproterozoic ; several glaciations , which produced the hypothesized Snowball Earth during the Cryogenian Period in the late Neoproterozoic Era; and the Ediacaran Period (635 to 541 Ma) which is characterized by the evolution of abundant soft-bodied multicellular organisms and provides us with the first obvious fossil evidence of life on earth
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Phanerozoic
The PHANEROZOIC Eon ( British English PHANæROZOIC) is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale , and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present, and began with the Cambrian Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning _visible life_, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian , the first period of this eon. The time before the Phanerozoic, called the _ Precambrian _ supereon, is now divided into the Hadean , Archaean and Proterozoic eons. The time span of the Phanerozoic starts with the rapid emergence of a number of animal phyla ; the evolution of those phyla into diverse forms; the emergence and development of complex plants ; the evolution of fish ; the emergence of insects and tetrapods ; and the development of modern fauna . Land plant life appeared in the early Phanerozoic eon. During this time span, tectonic forces caused the continents to move and eventually collect into a single landmass known as Pangaea , which then separated into the current continental landmasses
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system
Linnaean system
has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Eukaryota
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi are sometimes grouped in the kingdom PROTISTA . A EUKARYOTE (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/ ) is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes . Eukaryotes belong to the taxon EUKARYA or EUKARYOTA. The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells ( Bacteria and Archaea ) is that they have membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the genetic material and is enclosed by the nuclear envelope . The presence of a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name, which comes from the Greek εὖ (_eu_, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (_karyon_, "nut" or "kernel"). Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus . In addition, plants and algae contain chloroplasts . Eukaryotic organisms may be unicellular or multicellular . Only eukaryotes form multicellular organisms consisting of many kinds of tissue made up of different cell types . Eukaryotes can reproduce both asexually through mitosis and sexually through meiosis and gamete fusion. In mitosis, one cell divides to produce two genetically identical cells
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Archaeplastida
The ARCHAEPLASTIDA (or PLANTAE _sensu lato _) are a major group of eukaryotes , comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae , and the land plants , together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes . The chloroplasts of all these organisms are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they developed directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria . In all other groups besides the amoeboid _ Paulinella chromatophora _, the chloroplasts are surrounded by three or four membranes, suggesting they were acquired secondarily from red or green algae. The cells of the Archaeplastida typically lack centrioles and have mitochondria with flat cristae . They usually have a cell wall including cellulose , and food is stored in the form of starch . However, these characteristics are also shared with other eukaryotes. The main evidence that the Archaeplastida form a monophyletic group comes from genetic studies, which indicate their plastids probably had a single origin. This evidence is disputed. Based on results to date, alternative evolutionary scenarios to a single primary endosymbiosis is not possible to confirm or refute. Photosynthetic organisms with plastids of different origin (such as brown algae ) do not belong to the Archaeplastida. The archaeplastidans fall into two main evolutionary lines
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Extinction
In biology and ecology , EXTINCTION is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon ), normally a species . The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa , where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record ) after a period of apparent absence. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described. More recently, in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth currently with only one-thousandth of one percent described. Through evolution , species arise through the process of speciation —where new varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche —and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition
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Nematophytes
Family NEMATOTHALLACEAE: * Nematothallus Lang, 1937 * Cosmochlaina
Cosmochlaina
Edwards, 1986Family NEMATOPHYTACEAE: * Nematoplexus Lyon, 1962 * Nematasketum Burgess and Edwards, 1988 * Prototaxites Dawson, 1859 The NEMATOPHYTA or NEMATOPHYTES are a paraphyletic group of land organisms, probably including some plants as well as algae known only from the fossil record, from the Silurian
Silurian
period until the early Devonian
Devonian
Rhynie chert
Rhynie chert
. The type genus Nematothallus , which typifies the group, was first described by Lang in 1933, who envisioned it being a thallose plant with tubular features and sporophytes, covered by a cuticle which preserved impressions of the underlying cells. He had found abundant disaggregated remains of all three features, none of which were connected to another, leaving his reconstruction of the phytodebris as parts of a single organism highly conjectural. No reproductive or vegetative structures common to the land plants are known, and certain members of the nematophyte plexus (including Nemataplexus , axial conjugations of banded and branching tubes) seem to belong to the fungi
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Chlorophyta
CHLOROPHYTA is a division of green algae , informally called CHLOROPHYTES. The name is used in two very different senses, so care is needed to determine the use by a particular author. In older classification systems, it refers to a highly paraphyletic group of _all_ the green algae within the green plants ( Viridiplantae ) and thus includes about 7,000 species of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. In newer classifications, it refers to one of the two clades making up the Viridiplantae, which are the chlorophytes and the streptophytes . The clade Streptophyta consists of two divisions , the Charophyta and the Embryophyta . In this sense the Chlorophyta includes only about 4,300 species. Like the land plants (bryophytes and tracheophytes ), green algae contain chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and store food as starch in their plastids . The division contains both unicellular and multicellular species. Some conduct sexual reproduction, which is oogamous or isogamous. All members of the clade have motile flagellated swimming cells. While most species live in freshwater habitats and a large number in marine habitats , other species are adapted to a wide range of land environments. For example, _Chlamydomonas nivalis_, which causes Watermelon snow , lives on summer alpine snowfields. Others, such as _Trentepohlia _ species, live attached to rocks or woody parts of trees
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Palmophyllales
The PALMOPHYLLALES are a deep-branching order of thalloid green alga , possibly forming a sister group to the Chlorophyta . They survive today in deep waters, where predation pressure is reduced. The group contains the genera _ Palmophyllum _, _Verdigellas _ and _Palmoclathrus _. The morphology of Palmophyllales is unusual in that they are composed of cells in a gelatinous matrix, so they are multicellular , but not in a conventional way. GENERA * _ Palmoclathrus _ * _ Palmophyllum _ * _Verdigellas _REFERENCES * ^ Leliaert, F.; Verbruggen, H.; Zechman, F. W. (2011). "Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny". _BioEssays_. 33 (9): 683–692. PMID 21744372 . doi :10.1002/bies.201100035 . * ^ Zechman, F. W.; Verbruggen, H.; Leliaert, F.; Ashworth, M.; Buchheim, M. A.; Fawley, M. W.; Spalding, H.; Pueschel, C. M.; Buchheim, J. A.; Verghese, B.; Hanisak, M. D. (2010). "An Unrecognized Ancient Lineage of Green Plants Persists in Deep Marine Waters". _Journal of Phycology_. 46 (6): 1288–1295. doi :10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00900.x . _ Wikispecies has information related to: PALMOPHYLLALES _ _ This Alga -related article is a stub . You can help Wikipedia by expanding it ._ * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Palmophyllales additional terms may apply
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Prasinophyceae
The PRASINOPHYTES are a paraphyletic class of unicellular green algae in the Division Chlorophyta . Prasinophytes mainly include marine planktonic species, as well as some freshwater representatives. The prasinophytes are morphologically diverse, including flagellates with one to eight flagella and non-motile (coccoid) unicells. The cells of many species are covered with organic body scales; others are naked. One well known genus is _ Ostreococcus _, considered to be the smallest (ca. 0.95 μm ) free-living eukaryote , found in marine waters worldwide. Prasinophytes have simple cellular structures, containing a single chloroplast and a single mitochondrion . The genomes are relatively small compared to other eukaryotes (about 12 Mbp for _Ostreococcus_ and 21 Mbp for _Micromonas_ ). Recent studies agree that the prasinophytes are a non-evolutionary grouping (paraphyletic ) of chlorophyte green algae from different clades. Alternative classifications of the chlorophytes have been proposed in which this class is replaced by at least six separate taxa
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