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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Hadean
The Hadean
Hadean
( /ˈheɪdiən/) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean. It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS, 4 billion years ago.[1] As of 2016[update], the ICS describes its status as informal.[2] The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "Priscoan period"
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Archean
The Archean
Archean
Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/, also spelled Archaean) is a geologic eon, 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents.Contents1 Etymology and changes in classification 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean2.1 Palaeoenvironment3 Geology 4 Early life in the Archean 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology and changes in classification[edit] Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (Arkhē), meaning "beginning, origin"
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Sunlight
Sunlight
Sunlight
is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through Earth's atmosphere, and is obvious as daylight when the Sun
Sun
is above the horizon. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects, it is experienced as diffused light
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Coleochaetophyceae
Coleochaetophyceae
Coleochaetophyceae
are a class of charophyte algae that includes some of the closest multicellular relatives of land plants. References[edit]Taxon identifiersWd: Q1134312 EoL: 10652223 EPPO: 1KLQC ITIS: 8
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Chaetosphaeridiales
Chaetosphaeridiales is an order of green algae.[1] References[edit]^ Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Zechman, Frederick W. (2011). "Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny". BioEssays. 33 (9): 683–692. doi:10.1002/bies.201100035. ISSN 0265-9247. PMID 21744372. Taxon identifiersWd: Q21344242 EoL: 3998 GBIF: 635 iNaturalist: 152718 ITIS: 846597This Alga-related article is a stub
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Clade
A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Mesostigmatophyceae
The Mesostigmatophyceae are basal green algae,[1][2] and it contains two species.[3] Earlier studies were unable to resolve the position of the species, and it was often placed as a sister to all other green algae, as one of the basal members of the Streptophyta, or as close to Chaetosphaeridium.[4][5][6] More recent studies agree that Mesostigma and Chlorokybus form a clade, being the earliest diverging green algae.[7][8][9]Contents1 References 2 External links2.1 Scientific references 2.2 Scientific databasesReferences[edit]^ Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Zechman, Frederick W. (2011). "Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny". BioEssays. 33 (9): 683–692. doi:10.1002/bies.201100035. ISSN 0265-9247. PMID 21744372.  ^ Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Raven, John A.; Pisani, Davide; Knoll, Andrew H. (2017-09-12). "Early photosynthetic eukaryotes inhabited low-salinity habitats"
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Proterozoic
The Proterozoic
Proterozoic
( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/[1][2]) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth. The name Proterozoic
Proterozoic
comes from Greek and means "earlier life": the Greek root "protero-" means "former, earlier" and "zoic-" means "animal, living being".[3] The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian
Precambrian
Supereon. It can be also described as the time range between the appearance of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and the appearance of first complex life forms (like trilobites or corals)
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Aglaophyton
Aglaophyton
Aglaophyton
major was the sporophyte generation of a diplohaplontic, pre-vascular, axial, free-sporing land plant of the Lower Devonian (Pragian stage, around 410 million years ago). It had anatomical features intermediate between those of the bryophytes and vascular plants or tracheophytes. A
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Prokaryote
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.[1] The word prokaryote comes from the Greek πρό (pro) "before" and κάρυον (karyon) "nut or kernel".[2][3] Prokaryotes are divided into two domains, Archaea
Archaea
and Bacteria. In contrast, species with nuclei and organelles are placed in the third domain, Eukaryota.[4] Prokaryotes reproduce without fusion of gametes. The first living organisms are thought to have been prokaryotes. In the prokaryotes, all the intracellular water-soluble components (proteins, DNA
DNA
and metabolites) are located together in the cytoplasm enclosed by the cell membrane, rather than in separate cellular compartments
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Phanerozoic
The Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon[3] is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present,[4] and began with the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning visible life, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian, the first period of this eon
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Multicellular Organism
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.[1] All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium. Multicellular organisms arise in various ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells.[2] Colonial organisms are the result of many identical individuals joining together to form a colony
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[2] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ ( listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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Chlorokybophyceae
Chlorokybus is a genus of basal Green algae
Green algae
or Streptophyte containing the sole species Chlorokybus atmophyticus, a soil alga found in alpine areas. It sometimes has been classified as the sole member of the class Chlorokybophyceae Sluiman & Guihal, 1999.[2] Chlorokybus is apparently a rare alga from two terrestrial habitats in Austria.[3] References[edit]^ Geitler, L. (1942). "Morphologie, Entwicklungsgeschichte und systematik neuer bemerkenswerter atmosphytischer Algen aus Wien". Flora NF. 136. pp. 1–29.  ^ Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Zechman, Frederick W. (2011). "Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny". BioEssays. 33 (9): 683–692. doi:10.1002/bies.201100035. ISSN 0265-9247
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