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Planning Permission
PLANNING PERMISSION or DEVELOPMENTAL APPROVAL refers to the approval needed for construction or expansion (including significant renovation ) in some jurisdictions. It is usually given in the form of a BUILDING PERMIT (or CONSTRUCTION PERMIT). Generally, the new construction must be inspected during construction and after completion to ensure compliance with national, regional, and local building codes . Planning
Planning
is also dependent on the site's zone – for example, one cannot obtain permission to build a nightclub in an area where it is inappropriate, such as a high-density suburb. Failure to obtain a permit can result in fines , penalties , and demolition of unauthorized construction if it cannot be made to meet code
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Planning Permission In The United Kingdom
PLANNING PERMISSION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM refers to the planning permission required in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Ireland
Ireland
in order to be allowed to build on land, or change the use of land or buildings . Within the UK the occupier of any land or building will need title to that land or building (i.e. "ownership"), but will also need "planning title" or planning permission. Planning title was granted for all pre-existing uses and buildings by the Town and Country Planning Act 1947 , which came into effect on 1 July 1948. Since that date any new "development" has required planning permission. "Development" as defined by law consists of any building , engineering or mining operation, or the making of a material change of use in any land or building. Certain types of operation such as routine maintenance of an existing building are specifically excluded from the definition of development
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Renovation
RENOVATION (also called REMODELING) is the process of improving a broken, damaged, or outdated structure. Renovations are typically either commercial or residential. Additionally, renovation can refer to making something new, or bringing something back to life and can apply in social contexts. For example, a community can be renovated if it is strengthened and revived. CONTENTS * 1 Process * 2 Reasons * 3 Wood and renovations * 4 Process * 5 Effects * 6 Requirements * 7 See also * 8 References PROCESS The interior of a Victorian building
Victorian building
in Lincoln Park, Chicago
Lincoln Park, Chicago
in the process of being renovated in June 1971. Note the elements of the edifice scattered and sorted about. This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Building Inspection
A BUILDING INSPECTION is an inspection performed by a BUILDING INSPECTOR, a person who is employed by either a city, township or county and is usually certified in one or more disciplines qualifying them to make professional judgment about whether a building meets building code requirements. A building inspector may be certified either as a residential or commercial building inspector, as a plumbing , electrical or mechanical inspector, or other specialty-focused inspector who may inspect structures at different stages of completion. Building inspectors may charge a direct fee or a building permit fee. Inspectors may also be able to hold up construction work until inspection has been completed and approved. Some building inspection expertises like facade inspections are required by certain cities or counties and considered mandatory. These are to be done by engineers and not by contractors
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Building Code
A BUILDING CODE (also BUILDING CONTROL or BUILDING REGULATIONS) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures . Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission , usually from a local council. The main purpose of building codes is to protect public health , safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building
Building
codes are generally intended to be applied by architects , engineers , interior designers , constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors , environmental scientists , real estate developers , subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants , and others
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Fine (penalty)
A FINE or MULCT is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence . The amount of a fine can be determined case by case, but it is often announced in advance. A warning sign in Singapore that states the fine for releasing vehicles that are immobilized with wheel clamps by Singapore Police Force officers. The most usual use of the term is for financial punishments for the commission of crimes, especially minor crimes, or as the settlement of a claim . A synonym, typically used in civil law actions, is MULCT. One common example of a fine is money paid for violations of traffic laws. Currently in English common law , relatively small fines are used either in place of or alongside community service orders for low-level criminal offences
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Sanctions (law)
SANCTIONS, in law and legal definition, are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law , or with rules and regulations . Criminal sanctions can take the form of serious punishment , such as corporal or capital punishment , incarceration , or severe fines . Within the civil law context, sanctions are usually monetary fines, levied against a party to a lawsuit or his/her attorney, for violating rules of procedure , or for abusing the judicial process . The most severe sanction in a civil lawsuit is the involuntary dismissal , with prejudice , of a complaining party's cause of action , or of the responding party's answer. This has the effect of deciding the entire action against the sanctioned party without recourse, except to the degree that an appeal or trial de novo may be allowed because of reversible error
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Demolition
DEMOLITION is the tearing down of buildings and other man-made structures . Demolition contrasts with deconstruction , which involves taking a building apart while carefully preserving valuable elements for re-use purposes. For small buildings, such as houses , that are only two or three stories high, demolition is a rather simple process. The building is pulled down either manually or mechanically using large hydraulic equipment: elevated work platforms, cranes, excavators or bulldozers . Larger buildings may require the use of a wrecking ball , a heavy weight on a cable that is swung by a crane into the side of the buildings. Wrecking balls are especially effective against masonry, but are less easily controlled and often less efficient than other methods. Newer methods may use rotational hydraulic shears and silenced rock-breakers attached to excavators to cut or break through wood, steel, and concrete
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List Of Housing Statutes
The following is a list of housing -related statutes : The examples and perspective in this article MAY NOT REPRESENT A WORLDWIDE VIEW OF THE SUBJECT
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Urban Planning
URBAN PLANNING is a technical and political process concerned with the development and use of land , planning permission , protection and use of the environment, public welfare , and the design of the urban environment , including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas , such as transportation , communications , and distribution networks . Urban planning is also referred to as URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING, REGIONAL PLANNING, TOWN PLANNING, CITY PLANNING, RURAL PLANNING or some combination in various areas worldwide. It takes many forms and it can share perspectives and practices with urban design . Urban planning guides orderly development in urban, suburban and rural areas
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Construction Law
CONSTRUCTION LAW is a branch of law that deals with matters relating to building construction , engineering and related fields. It is in essence an amalgam of contract law , commercial law , planning law , employment law and tort . Construction
Construction
law covers a wide range of legal issues including contract, negligence, bonds and bonding , guarantees and sureties , liens and other security interests, tendering, construction claims, and related consultancy contracts. Construction
Construction
law affects many participants in the construction industry, including financial institutions , surveyors , architects , builders , engineers , construction workers , and planners
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Local Government
LOCAL GOVERNMENT is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government , national government, or (where appropriate) federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states , local government generally comprises the third (or sometimes fourth) tier of government, whereas in unitary states , local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions. The question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public administration and governance
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Leading Indicators
An ECONOMIC INDICATOR is a statistic about an economic activity . Economic indicators allow analysis of economic performance and predictions of future performance. One application of economic indicators is the study of business cycles . Economic indicators include various indices, earnings reports, and economic summaries. Examples: unemployment rate, quits rate (quit rate in U.S. English), housing starts , consumer price index (a measure for inflation ), consumer leverage ratio , industrial production , bankruptcies , gross domestic product , broadband internet penetration , retail sales , stock market prices, money supply changes. The leading business cycle dating committee in the United States
United States
of America is the National Bureau of Economic Research (private). The Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bureau of Labor Statistics
is the principal fact-finding agency for the U.S
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Broadcast Law
BROADCAST LAW is the field of law that pertains to broadcasting . These laws and regulations pertain to radio stations and TV stations , and are also considered to include closely related services like cable TV and cable radio , as well as satellite TV and satellite radio . Likewise, it also extends to broadcast networks . Broadcast law includes technical parameters for these facilities, as well as content issues like copyright , profanity , and localism or regionalism . CONTENTS* 1 US * 1.1 History * 2 UK * 3 Bibliography * 4 Further reading USIn the US, broadcasting falls under the jurisdiction of the Federal Communications Commission
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