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Planetary Orbit
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object,[1] such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Normally, orbit refers to a regularly repeating trajectory, although it may also refer to a non-repeating trajectory. To a close approximation, planets and satellites follow elliptic orbits, with the central mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse,[2] as described by Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Current understanding of the mechanics of orbital motion is based on Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, which accounts for gravity as due to curvature of spacetime, with orbits following geodesics
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Orbit (other)
Orbit
Orbit
in physics is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body. Orbit
Orbit
may also refer to:Contents1 Computing 2 Science and mathem
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Robotic Spacecraft
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control. A robotic spacecraft designed to make scientific research measurements is often called a space probe. Many space missions are more suited to telerobotic rather than crewed operation, due to lower cost and lower risk factors. In addition, some planetary destinations such as Venus
Venus
or the vicinity of Jupiter
Jupiter
are too hostile for human survival, given current technology
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List Of Lunar Missions
As part of human exploration of the Moon, numerous space missions have been undertaken to study Earth's natural satellite. Of the Moon landings; Luna 2
Luna 2
was the first spacecraft to reach its surface successfully, intentionally impacting the Moon
Moon
on 13 September 1959. In 1966, Luna 9
Luna 9
became the first spacecraft to achieve a controlled soft landing, while Luna 10
Luna 10
became the first mission to enter orbit. Between 1968 and 1972, manned missions to the Moon
Moon
were conducted by the United States
United States
as part of the Apollo program. Apollo 8
Apollo 8
was the first manned mission to enter orbit in December 1968, and was followed by Apollo 10
Apollo 10
in May 1969
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Earth Observation Satellite
Earth observation
Earth observation
satellites are satellites specifically designed for Earth observation
Earth observation
from orbit, similar to spy satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. Most Earth observation
Earth observation
satellites carry instruments that should be operated at a relatively low altitude. Altitudes below 500-600 kilometers are in general avoided, though, because of the significant air-drag at such low altitudes making frequent orbit reboost maneuvres necessary. The Earth observation
Earth observation
satellites ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat of European Space Agency
European Space Agency
as well as the MetOp
MetOp
spacecraft of EUMETSAT are all operated at altitudes of about 800 km
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Spy Satellite
A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite
Earth observation satellite
or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. The first generation type (i.e., Corona [1] [2] and Zenit) took photographs, then ejected canisters of photographic film which would descend to earth. Corona capsules were retrieved in mid-air as they floated down on parachutes. Later, spacecraft had digital imaging systems and downloaded the images via encrypted radio links. In the United States, most information available is on programs that existed up to 1972, as this information has been declassified due to its age
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Communications Satellite
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. There are over 2,000 communications satellites in Earth’s orbit, used by both private and government organizations.[1] Wireless communication uses electromagnetic waves to carry signals. These waves require line-of-sight, and are thus obstructed by the curvature of the Earth
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Satellite Navigation
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude/elevation) to high precision (within a few metres) using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites. The system can be used for providing position, navigation or for tracking the position of something fitted with a receiver (satellite tracking). The signals also allow the electronic receiver to calculate the current local time to high precision, which allows time synchronisation. Satnav systems operate independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the positioning information generated. A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)
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Space Telescope
A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects. Space telescopes avoid many of the problems of ground-based observatories, such as light pollution and distortion of electromagnetic radiation (scintillation)
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Space Exploration
Space exploration
Space exploration
is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology. While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, the physical exploration of space is conducted both by unmanned robotic space probes and human spaceflight. While the observation of objects in space, known as astronomy, predates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large and relatively efficient rockets during the mid-twentieth century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality
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Space Tourism
Space tourism
Space tourism
is space travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. There are several different types of space tourism, including orbital, suborbital and lunar space tourism. To date, orbital space tourism has been performed only by the Russian Space Agency. Work also continues towards developing suborbital space tourism vehicles. This is being done by aerospace companies like Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic. In addition, SpaceX
SpaceX
(an aerospace manufacturer) announced in 2017 that it is planning on sending two space tourists on a lunar free-return trajectory aboard its Dragon V2 spacecraft in 2018
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Space Colonization
Core conceptsPlanetary habitability Space and survival Space habitat Terraforming Interplanetary travel Interstellar travel Intergalactic travel Colonization
Colonization
targets Colonization
Coloniza

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Spacecraft
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. Spacecraft
Spacecraft
are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and cargo. On a sub-orbital spaceflight, a spacecraft enters space and then returns to the surface, without having gone into an orbit. For orbital spaceflights, spacecraft enter closed orbits around the Earth
Earth
or around other celestial bodies. Spacecraft
Spacecraft
used for human spaceflight carry people on board as crew or passengers from start or on orbit (space stations) only, whereas those used for robotic space missions operate either autonomously or telerobotically. Robotic spacecraft used to support scientific research are space probes. Robotic spacecraft that remain in orbit around a planetary body are artificial satellites
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Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. In 1957 the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 6,600 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2013 estimate, 3,600 remained in orbit.[1] Of those, about 1,000 were operational;[2] while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 500 operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 50 are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), and the rest are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km).[3] A few large satellites have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit
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Timeline Of Spaceflight
This is a timeline of known spaceflights, both manned and unmanned, sorted chronologically by launch date. Owing to its large size, the timeline is split into smaller articles, one for each year since 1951. There is a separate list for all flights that occurred before 1951. The 2018 list, and lists for subsequent years, contain planned launches which have not yet occurred. For the purpose of these lists, a spaceflight is defined as any flight that crosses the Kármán line, the officially recognised edge of space, which is 100 kilometres (62 miles) above mean sea level (AMSL). The timeline contains all flights which have crossed the edge of space, were intended to do so but failed, or are planned in the near future. Some lists are further divided into orbital launches (sending a payload into orbit, whether successful or not) and suborbital flights (e.g
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Space Probe
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.[1] A space probe may approach the Moon; travel through interplanetary space; flyby, orbit, or land on other planetary bodies; or enter interstellar space. See List of active Solar System probes
List of active Solar System probes
for a list of active probes; the space agencies of the USSR (now Russia
Russia
and Ukraine), the United States, the European Union, Japan, China
China
and India
India
have in the aggregate launched probes to several planets and moons of the Solar System as well as to a number of asteroids and comets
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